Attractiveness or attraction is a quality that causes an interest, desire in, or gravitation to something or someone.:59[Notes 1][Notes 2] Attraction may also refer to the object of the attraction itself, as in tourist attraction.
Visual attractiveness or visual appeal is attraction produced primarily by visual stimuli.
Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, similarity and physique.
Judgment of attractiveness of physical traits is partly universal to all human cultures, partly dependent on culture or society or time period, partly biological, and partly subjective and individual.
Eye candy (slang for visual appeal)Edit
Eye candy is a slang term for superficial attractiveness. In a 2017 Boston Globe article about the potential for cheerleading at the Olympics, eye candy was used to describe cheerleaders as "entertainment popularized by professional sports in the United States." The term has also been used in professional sports in the United States referring to female athletes.
"Eye Candy" and the Sexualization of GirlsEdit
In 2005 the American Psychological Association (APA) established the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls.[Notes 3] In 2008 they reported that clothing targeting 7– to 10-year-old girls was being advertised with slogans such as "eye candy" or "wink wink". By 2008, " journalists, child advocacy organizations, parents, and psychologists" had expressed "alarm" that the sexualization of girls was a "broad and increasing problem and is harmful to girls." As part of the book series entitled Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development (ARAD), Mary E. Mancuso published a chapter entitled "Protecting Youth from Sexualized Media: Media Literacy" in Adolescents, Rapid Social Change, and the Law: The Transforming Nature of Protection. Mancuso—at Indiana University Maurer School of Law—observed that the "sexualization of the media" has become a "pressing issue for child development and society as a whole" as media through technological advancements, has become pervasiveness in children's lives.:56 She called for governmental support for media literacy programs in public schools to counter the potentially harmful effects of "problematic media messages". She cited studies on marketing of clothes that enhance the sexual attractiveness of young girls such as sexy camisoles, things, padded bras, and emblazoned tee-shirts with inappropriate slogans, such as "Eye Candy" for tweenies. Central to the marketing strategy is the importance of being "hot" and "sexy".
- Their often-cited 1988 publication provided a "general theory of how psychological situations elicit emotions and make them intense. Its chief application is in computer science as the emotion engine of intelligent agents in computer games, and interactive training modules." Anthony Ortony, professor at Northwestern University with a focus on Psychology, Education, and Computer Science; Gerald L. Clore is a Psychology Professor at the University of Virginia with a focus on emotion and its cognitive consequences; and Allan Collins is professor of Learning Sciences specializing in Education, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence at Northwestern University.
- In The Cognitive Structure of Emotions Ortony, Clore and Collins describe the intensity of joy emotions; praiseworthiness affects the intensity of pride emotions, and appealingness affects the intensity of the object-based attraction emotions. The "perception of charm and physical beauty" through their influence on "appealingness" only have an indirect effect on the intensity of attraction emotions.
- The Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls was established in February 2005 under the "recommendation of the American Psychological Association (APA) Committee on Women in Psychology (CWP) and with the approval of the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI) and the Board of Directors, APA’s Council of Representatives." Task force members in 2010 included: Eileen L. Zurbriggen, PhD (Chair) Rebecca L. Collins, PhD Sharon Lamb, EdD Tomi-Ann Roberts, PhD Deborah L.Tolman, EdD L. Monique Ward, PhD Jeanne Blake (Public Member)
- Ortony, Andrew; Gerald L. Clore; Allan Collins (1989). The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-521-38664-0. doi:10.2307/2074241.
- Colby, B. N. (November 1989). "Review of 'The Cognitive Structure of Emotions' by Andrew Ortony, Gerald L. Clore and Allan Collins". Contemporary Sociology. American Sociological Association. 18 (6): 957–958. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- Hönekopp, Johannes (2006). "Once more: Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Relative contributions of private and shared taste to judgments of facial attractiveness" (PDF). APA.
- "The English We Speak". BBC. November 3, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Springer, Shira (February 18, 2017). "Is cheerleading coming to the Olympics?". Boston Globe. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Ryan, Shannon (January 7, 2016). "Time for NFL to end use of cheerleaders". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "It's Time For Sports Broadcasting To Stop Relegating Women to Sideline Eye Candy". Forbes. January 21, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls (PDF) (Report). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association (APA). p. 72. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Cook, D.T., & Kaiser, S. B. (2004). Betwixt and between: Age ambiguity and the sexualization of the female consuming subject. Journal of Consumer Culture, 4, 203-227.
- Haynes, M. (November 3, 2005). "Bawdy T-shirts set off "girlcott" by teens". The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
Abercrombie & Fitch (A&F), who were known for producing "edgy products" had "outraged parents in 2002, "by selling thongs for girls as young as 10, some of which had the words "eye candy" printed inside a tiny heart and "wink wink" inside a small green box."
- Merskin, D. (2004). Reviving Lolita? A media literacy examination of sexual portrayals of girls in fashion advertising. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 119-129.
- Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls (2008). The Sexualization of Girls (PDF) (Report). American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Mancusi, Mary E. (2016). "Protecting Youth from Sexualized Media: Media Literacy". In Roger J.R. Levesque. Adolescents, Rapid Social Change, and the Law: The Transforming Nature of Protection. Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development (ARAD). Springer Publishing. p. 213. ISBN 978-3-319-41533-8. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-41535-2_3. Retrieved September 28, 2017.