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Aluminum chlorohydrate is a group of specific aluminum salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m. It is used in cosmetics as an antiperspirant and as a coagulant in water purification.

In water purification, this compound is preferred in some cases because of its high charge, which makes it more effective at destabilizing and removing suspended materials than other aluminum salts such as aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride and various forms of polyaluminum chloride and polyaluminum chlorisulfate, in which the aluminum structure results in a lower net charge than aluminum chlorohydrate. Further, the high degree of neutralization of the HCl results in minimal impact on treated water pH when compared to other aluminum and iron salts.

Contents

UsesEdit

Aluminum chlorohydrate is one of the most common active ingredients in commercial antiperspirants.[1] The variation most commonly used in deodorants and antiperspirants is Al2Cl(OH)5.

Aluminum chlorohydrate is also used as a coagulant in water and wastewater treatment processes to remove dissolved organic matter and colloidal particles present in suspension.

SafetyEdit

The Food and Drug Administration considers the use of aluminum chlorohydrate in antiperspirants to be safe and it is permitted in concentrations up to 25%.[2]

Alzheimer's diseaseEdit

Studies have found only a negligible association between exposure to and long-term use of antiperspirants and Alzheimer's disease.[3] There is no adequate evidence that exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants leads to progressive dementia and Alzheimer's disease.[4]

Heather M. Snyder, the senior associate director of medical and scientific relations for the Alzheimer's Association, has stated, "There was a lot of research that looked at the link between Alzheimer's and aluminum, and there hasn't been any definitive evidence to suggest there is a link".[5]

Breast cancerEdit

The International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine found no evidence that certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics increase the risk of breast cancer.[6] Ted S. Gansler, the director of medical content for the American Cancer Society, stated "There is no convincing evidence that antiperspirant or deodorant use increases cancer risk".[5]

However, there is continued concern over the use of aluminum chlorohydrate in cosmetics as the risk of toxic build up overtime has not been ruled out.[7] The Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is currently designing a study to analyse the build up of aluminum chlorohydrate via dermal penetration to assess the risk of toxic build up.[8]

StructureEdit

Aluminum chlorohydrate is best described as an inorganic polymer and as such is difficult to structurally characterize. However, techniques such as gel permeation chromatography, X-ray crystallography and 27Al-NMR have been used in research by various groups including that of Nazar[9] and Laden[10] to show that the material is based on Al13 units with a Keggin ion structure and that this base unit then undergoes complex transformations to form larger poly-aluminum complexes.

SynthesisEdit

Aluminum chlorohydrate can be commercially manufactured by reacting aluminum with hydrochloric acid. A number of aluminum-containing raw materials can be used, including aluminum metal, alumina trihydrate, aluminum chloride, aluminum sulfate and combinations of these. The products can contain by-product salts, such as sodium/calcium/magnesium chloride or sulfate.[11]

Because of the explosion hazard related to hydrogen produced by the reaction of aluminum metal with hydrochloric acid, the most common industrial practice is to prepare a solution of aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) by reacting aluminum hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The ACH product is reacted with aluminum ingots at 100 °C using steam in an open mixing tank. The Al to ACH ratio and the time of reaction allowed determines the polymer form of the PAC n to m ratio.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lukacs VA, Korting HC (1989). "[Antiperspirants and deodorants—ingredients and evaluation]". Dermatosen in Beruf Und Umwelt (in German). 37 (2): 53–7. PMID 2656175.
  2. ^ Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 21 C.F.R. 350.10
  3. ^ Graves AB, White E, Koepsell TD, Reifler BV, van Belle G, Larson EB (1990). "The association between aluminum-containing products and Alzheimer's disease". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 43 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(90)90053-R. PMID 2319278.
  4. ^ Exley C (March 1998). "Does antiperspirant use increase the risk of aluminum-related disease, including Alzheimer's disease?". Molecular Medicine Today. 4 (3): 107–9. doi:10.1016/S1357-4310(98)01209-X. PMID 9575492.
  5. ^ a b "Antiperspirant Safety: Should You Sweat It?". WebMD.
  6. ^ Gikas, PD; Mansfield, L; Mokbel, K (2004). "Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?". Int. J. Fertil. Womens Med. 49 (5): 212–4. PMID 15633477.
  7. ^ "Aluminium salts in antiperspirants | Breast Cancer UK". www.breastcanceruk.org.uk. Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  8. ^ "The safety of Aluminium in cosmetic Products" (PDF). Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety. 7 March 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  9. ^ Rowsell J, Nazar LF (2000). "Speciation and Thermal Transformation in Alumina Sols: Structures of the Polyhydroxyoxoaluminum Cluster [Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26]18+ and Its δ-Keggin Moieté". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 122 (15): 3777–8. doi:10.1021/ja993711.
  10. ^ Laden, Karl; Felger, Carl B. (1988). Antiperspirants and deodorants. New York: M. Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-7893-4.[page needed]
  11. ^ American National Standards Institute (1993). AWWA standard for liquid poly aluminum chloride. Denver: American Water Works Association. OCLC 31849037.