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Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti

Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh Nawbakhti (died 937 or 938 AD)[1] was the third of the four deputies appointed by twelfth Shia Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi while he was in the Minor Occultation.[2][3] He was a native of Qum who migrated to Baghdad during the time of Uthman ibn Sa'id al-Asadi, the first deputy. Al‑Nawbakhti was a companion of the second deputy Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Uthman and became his agent for several years.[4] After the death of al-Nawbakhti, Abul Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Samarri was appointed as the fourth deputy of Muhammad al-Mahdi.[5][4]



The birth date of Husayn ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti is unknown. He was a native of Qum, Iran, who migrated to Baghdad, Iraq, during the time of the first deputy Uthman ibn Sa'id al-Asadi.[4] Husayn ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti was a member of the al-Nawbakhti family who had a high position among Banu Abbas.[6]

Before his deputyshipEdit

During the Imamah of Hasan al-Askari, the eleventh Imam of Shias, Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti was one of his companions.[7] He was also a companion and supporter of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Uthman, the second deputy of Muhammad al-Mahdi,[7] his agent among the Shias and the connection between second deputy and other Shia leaders.[1][8]


Under the direction of Muhammad al-Mahdi, Husayn ibn Ruh was appointed as the third special deputy by Muhammad ibn Uthman.[9] About three years before Muhammad ibn Uthman's death, to prepare the Shia community to accept Husayn ibn Ruh as the third deputy, Ibn Uthman began directing some of the Shias who were bringing Khums and other religious funds for Muhammad al-Mahdi to Husain ibn Rauh.[7] When he became seriously ill, a group of Shia elite went to see him and about the next deputy; he replied; "Husayn b. Ruh is my successor and the trusted deputy of the Master of the Age. Refer to him in your affairs. I have been commanded by the Imam to designate Husayn b. Ruh in the position of deputyship."[10] When Muhammad ibn Uthman was about to die, he introduced Husayn ibn Ruh as his successor.[11][12]

The first Tawqee from Muhammad al-MahdiEdit

After the selection of al-Nawbakhti as the third deputy of final Imam of Shia, the first Tawqee, the letters that were signed by the Twelve Imams, from Muhammad al-mahdi received him on Sunday, 917 AD (6th of Shawwal, 305 A.H). The Tawqee said; "We know (Husain b. Rauh), may Allah confer all His Goodness and Pleasure on him and bestow His Bounties on him. We are aware of his letter, which is the cause of our reliance and certainty (upon him). We deem him meritorious, which makes him happy. May Allah increase His Favors and Goodness on him."[13][7]


Husayn ibn Ruh was the deputy of Muhammad al-Mahdi amongst Shias for about 21 years until his death in 937–938 AD (18 Sha'ban 326 A.H). His body was buried in Baghdad.[7][8]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Abd al-Aziz Sachedina (1981). Islamic Messianism: The Idea of Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism. SUNY Press. p. 92.
  2. ^ ʻAbd al-Hādī Ḥāʼirī (1977). Shīʿīsm and Constitutionalism in Iran: A Study of the Role Played by the Persian Residents of Iraq in Iranian Politics. Brill Archive. p. 58. ISBN 90-04-04900-2.
  3. ^ Compendium of Shi'i Pilgrimage Prayers: Vol.6- General Visitation Prayers: Jami‘ al-Ziyarat al-Ma‘sumin. MIU Press. 30 October 2013. p. 376. ISBN 978-1-907905-18-6.
  4. ^ a b c Jassim M. Hussain (6 March 2014). The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam(a Historical Background). Createspace Independent Pub. ISBN 978-1-4960-6325-0.
  5. ^ Michael M. J. Fischer (15 July 2003). Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-299-18473-5.
  6. ^ Moojan Momen. Shi'I Islam: A Beginner's Guide. Oneworld Publications.
  7. ^ a b c d e Association of Imam Mahdi. Husain b. Rauh (r.a.) During the Period of the 2nd Special Deputy.
  8. ^ a b Zahra Ra'isi (2013). "The Special Deputies of Imam Mahdi (as)" (PDF). Message of Thaqalayn. 14 (1): 80.
  9. ^ S.M.R. Shabbar. Story of the Holy Ka’aba And its People. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain.
  10. ^ Ebrahim Amini, Abdulaziz Sachedina. Al-Imam al-Mahdi, The Just Leader of Humanity. Ansariyan Publications – Qum.
  11. ^ Mohammed Raza Dungersi. A Brief Biography of Imam Muhammad bin Hasan (a.s.): al-Mahdi. Bilal Muslim Mission. pp. 19–21.
  12. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr; Hamid Dabashi; Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr (26 April 1989). Expectation of the Millennium: Shi'ism in History. SUNY Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-88706-844-7.
  13. ^ Shaikh Tusi. Al-Ghaybah. p. 372.