80 Plus (trademarked 80 PLUS) is a voluntary certification program launched in 2004, intended to promote efficient energy use in computer power supply units (PSUs).

80 Plus logo

Certification is acquirable for products that have more than 80% energy efficiency at 20%, 50% and 100% of rated load, and a power factor of 0.9 or greater at 100% load.

History edit

  • EPRI (Electric Power Research) and Ecos Consulting (promoter of the brand) develop the Generalized Internal Power Supply Efficiency Test Protocol for desktop derived multi-output power supplies.
  • March 2004: the 80 Plus idea was presented as an initiative at the ACEEE Market Transformation Symposium.
  • February 2005: the first market-ready power supply was created by Seasonic.
  • 2006: Energy Star added 80 Plus requirements to their then-upcoming (in effect since July 2007) Energy Star 4.0 computer specifications.
  • November and February 2006: HP and Dell certify their PSUs to the 80 Plus specification.
  • 20 July 2007: Energy Star Computer Specification 4.0 goes into effect. The specification includes 80 Plus power supply efficiency levels for desktop computers.
  • December 2007: over 200[1] PSUs on the market are 80 Plus certified and it is becoming the market standard.
  • First-quarter 2008: standards revised to add Bronze, Silver, and Gold higher efficiency level certifications.
  • October 2009: added specification for the Platinum efficiency level.[2]
  • February 2012: Dell and Delta Electronics working together were able to achieve world-first 80 Plus Titanium server power supply.[3]

Efficiency level certifications edit

80 Plus Certification Levels[citation needed]
80 Plus test type Icon 115 V internal non-redundant 230 V internal redundant 230 V EU internal non-redundant
Percentage of rated load 10% 20% 50% 100% 10% 20% 50% 100% 10% 20% 50% 100%
80 Plus   80% 80% 80% 82% 85% 82%
80 Plus Bronze   82% 85% 82% 81% 85% 81% 85% 88% 85%
80 Plus Silver   85% 88% 85% 85% 89% 85% 87% 90% 87%
80 Plus Gold   87% 90% 87% 88% 92% 88% 90% 92% 89%
80 Plus Platinum   90% 92% 89% 90% 94% 91% 92% 94% 90%
80 Plus Titanium   90% 92% 94% 90% 90% 94% 96% 91% 90% 94% 96% 94%

4 categories for the certification:

  • 115 V lists power supplies certified for desktop, workstation, and non-redundant server applications.
  • 230 V lists power supplies certified for redundant, data center applications.
  • 115 V Industrial lists power supplies for industrial applications. Units may be any physical format (embedded, encapsulated, open frame, rack mount, DIN-mount).
  • 230 V EU Internal power supplies are certified for desktop, workstation, and server applications in non-redundant configurations.

For the higher certification levels, the requirement of 0.9 or better power factor was extended to apply to 20% and 50% load levels, as well as at 100% load. The Platinum level requires 0.95 or better power factor for servers.[4]

The Climate Savers Computing Initiative efficiency level targets for workstations for 2007 through 2011, corresponding to the 80 Plus certification levels. From July 2007 through June 2008, the basic 80 Plus level (Energy Star 4.0). For the next year, the target is 80 Plus Bronze level, the following year 80 Plus Silver, then 80 Plus Gold, and finally Platinum.

Redundancy is typically used in data centers.

Misleading power supply advertising edit

There have been instances where companies claim or imply that their supplies are 80 Plus when they have not been certified, and in some cases do not meet the requirements.[5][6] For example, the highest 80 Plus is 80+ Titanium (96% efficiency at 50% load).[7] Some companies will claim they meet this requirement even when they are only close (i.e. 95.xx%) therefore claiming 80+ Titanium.[8] However, this is not the case as one could easily modify the test unit to be more enhanced than production models in order to slightly raise numbers.[9][failed verification]

When a company resells an OEM power supply under a new name, it must be certified under the new name and company, even if the OEM supply is certified. In some instances, a reseller has claimed a higher wattage than the supply can deliver, so the reseller's supply would not meet 80 Plus requirements.[5]

Although some power supply manufacturers name their products with similar names, such as "85 Plus", "90 Plus" and "95 Plus",[10][11] there is no such official certification or standard.

Certification edit

80+ Titanium Certification Example for Compuware model CDR-2227-2M2 PSU

Plug Load Solutions tests PSUs according to their testing protocol[7] and lists certified PSUs, allowing consumers to verify how many and which models are listed by each company.

Technical overview edit

The efficiency of a computer power supply is its output power divided by its input power; the remaining input power is converted to heat as expected under conservation of energy. For instance, a 600 W power supply with 60% efficiency running at full load would draw 1000 W from the mains and waste 400 W as heat.

600 W output
400 W heat

1000 W input

A 600 W power supply with 80% efficiency running at full load would draw 750 W from the mains and waste only 150 W as heat.

600 W output
150 W heat

750 W input

Redundant power supply contains two (or more) modules.

For a given power supply, efficiency varies depending on how much power is being delivered. Supplies are typically most efficient at between half and three-quarters load, much less efficient at low load, and somewhat less efficient at maximum load. Older ATX power supplies were typically 60% to 75% efficient. To qualify for 80 Plus, a power supply must achieve at least 80% efficiency at three specified loads (20%, 50% and 100% of maximum rated power). However, 80 Plus supplies may still be less than 80% efficient at lower loads. For instance, an 80 Plus, 520 watt supply could still be 70% or less efficient at 60 watts (a typical idle power for a desktop computer).[12] Thus it is still important to select a supply with capacity appropriate to the device being powered.

It is easier to achieve the higher efficiency levels for higher wattage supplies, so gold and platinum supplies may be less available in consumer-level supplies of reasonable capacity for typical desktop machines.

Typical computer power supplies may have power factors as low as 0.5 to 0.6.[13] The higher power factor reduces the peak current draw, reducing load on the circuit or on an uninterruptible power supply.

Reducing the heat output of the computer helps reduce noise, since fans do not have to spin as fast to cool the computer. Reduced heat and resulting in lower cooling demands may increase computer reliability.[13]

The testing conditions may give an unrealistic expectation of efficiency for heavily loaded, high power (rated much larger than 300 W) supplies. A heavily loaded power supply and the computer it is powering generate significant amounts of heat, which may raise the power supply temperature, which is likely to decrease its efficiency. Since power supplies are certified at room temperature, this effect is not taken into account.[4][14]

80 Plus does not set efficiency targets for very low load. For instance, generation of standby power may still be relatively inefficient, and may not meet requirements of the One Watt Initiative. Testing of 80 Plus power supplies shows that they vary considerably in standby efficiency. Some power supplies consume half a watt[15] or less in standby with no load, where others consume several times as much at standby,[16] even though they may meet higher 80 Plus certification requirement levels.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Join, 80+.
  2. ^ Lima, Cássio (9 December 2009). "New 80 Plus Platinum Certification". Hardware Secrets. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  3. ^ "Dell First to Achieve 80 Plus Titanium PSU Energy Efficiency". Direct2Dell. Dell. 22 February 2012. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  4. ^ a b Chin, Michael 'Mike' (19 March 2008). "80 Plus expands podium for Bronze, Silver & Gold". Silent PC Review. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  5. ^ a b Torres, Gabriel (3 December 2010). "Power Supplies With Fake 80 Plus Badges". Hardware Secrets. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
  6. ^ "How to spot fake 80 plus badges". Overclock.net.
  7. ^ a b "Generalized Test Protocol for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of Internal Ac-Dc and Dc-Dc Power Supplies Revision 6.7.1" (PDF). 5 October 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2020.
  8. ^ "80 PLUS certification". HEXUS.
  9. ^ "Cooler Master FAQ". landing.coolermaster.com.
  10. ^ Torres, Gabriel (29 March 2010). "Amacrox Free Earth 85PLUS 650 W Power Supply Review". Hardware Secrets. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011.
  11. ^ TG Publishing Team (8 July 2010). "FSP Everest 85 Plus 500". Tom's Hardware. p. 6.
  12. ^ Chin, Michael 'Mike' (17 November 2006). "Corsair HX520W & HX620W Modular power supplies". Silent PC Review. p. 4.
  13. ^ a b "The Program". 80 Plus.
  14. ^ Torres, Gabriel (10 November 2010). "Can We Trust the 80 Plus Certification?". Hardware Secrets. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014.
  15. ^ Chin, Michael 'Mike' (16 March 2008). "Corsair TX650W ATX12V power supply review". Silent PC Review. p. 4.
  16. ^ Chin, Michael 'Mike' (2 March 2008). "Enermax Modu82+ 625 Power Supply Review". Silent PC Review. p. 5.

External links edit