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The 75mm 50 caliber Pattern 1892 was a Russian naval gun developed in the years before the Russo-Japanese War that armed the majority of warships of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I. The majority of ships built or refit between 1890-1922 carried Pattern 1892 guns. During its career the role of the guns evolved from one of anti-torpedo boat defense to coastal artillery and anti-aircraft use.[2]

75mm 50 caliber Pattern 1892
Tykki 75 50.JPG
Finnish coastal artillery 75/50 C.
TypeNaval gun
Coastal artillery
Anti-aircraft gun
Place of originFrance
Service history
In service1892-1945
Used byRussian Empire
Soviet Union
Estonia
Finland
Poland
France
WarsBoxer Rebellion
Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Russian Civil War
Winter War
World War II
Production history
DesignerCanet
Designed1891
ManufacturerObukhov
Perm
Produced1892
Specifications
Mass901 kg (1,986 lb)
Length3.7 m (12 ft 2 in)
Barrel length2.9 m (9 ft 6 in)

ShellFixed QF ammunition
Shell weight4.9 kg (11 lb)
Caliber75 mm (3.0 in) 50 caliber
ElevationNaval: -7° to +20°
AA: -7° to +75°
Traverse360°
Rate of fire12-15 rpm
Muzzle velocity862 m/s (2,830 ft/s)[1]
Maximum firing rangeNaval: 7.8 km (4.8 mi) at +20°
AA: 4.9 km (16,000 ft) at +60°[2]

Contents

HistoryEdit

In 1891 a Russian naval delegation was shown three guns designed by the French designer Canet. One was a 75 mm/50 caliber gun, one a 120 mm/45 caliber gun and the last was a 152mm/45 caliber gun. All three guns used fixed QF ammunition which produced a rate of fire of 15 rpm for the 75 mm gun, 12 rpm for the 122 mm gun and 10 rpm for the 152 mm gun. The Russians were impressed and in 1892 they negotiated a production license for all three guns.[1]

ConstructionEdit

75mm/50 caliber Pattern 1892 guns were produced at the Obhukov factory and the Perm factory between 1892 and 1922. By 1901 the Obhukov factory had produced 234 guns, with another 268 produced between 1909-1917. The Perm factory produced 70 guns between 1900-1907, with another 155 produced between 1914-1922.[1] The original naval mounts produced between 1892-1913 had low angles of elevation -7° to +20°. Mounts produced between 1914-1928 were high angle mounts -7° to +75° suitable for use as coastal artillery and anti-aircraft guns.[2]

Coastal Artillery & Anti-Aircraft UseEdit

It is estimated that 100 guns were left behind by the Russians in 1917 and used by the Finns. The majority of guns came from Russian coastal artillery installations with a smaller number being captured aboard warships the Russian Navy left behind. In 1924 the Finns still had 95 coastal artillery and anti-aircraft guns in their inventory. In 1941 it was estimated there were still 69 guns in active service with the Soviet Navy.[2] In 1944 Finnish coastal artillery and Navy still had 66 guns, of which 10 guns were serving on ships.[3]

Naval UseEdit

75/50 guns armed a variety of ships such as armored cruisers, destroyers, dreadnought battleships, gunboats, light cruisers, minelayers, minesweepers, Pre-dreadnought battleships, protected cruisers and submarines of the Imperial Russian Navy. After the 1917 October Revolution the successor states of Estonia, Finland, Poland and the Soviet Union all used this gun. The last Finnish warship to carry 75/50 guns was the minelayer Ruotsinsalmi, which was decommissioned in 1975.[4]

Armored Cruisers

  • Bayan-class - The four ships of this class had a tertiary armament of twenty, 75/50 guns in single mounts. Eight were in casemates amidships. While another twelve were on single, shielded mounts.[5]
  • General admiral-class The two ships of this class had a tertiary armament consisting of two or four, 75/50 guns, on single mounts, after refits in 1910 and 1925.[6]

Destroyers

Dreadnought Battleships

  • Gangut-class - Two ships of this class the Sevastopol and Poltava had an AA armament of two, 75/50 guns, in single mounts, after 1916-1917 refits.[8]
  • Imperatritsa Mariya-class - The three ships of this class had an AA armament of three to eight, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[9]

Gunboats

  • Filin-class guard ship - The four ships of this class had a primary armament of one or two, 75/50 guns, in single mounts, fore and aft.[10]

Light Cruisers

  • Admiral Nakhimov-class - One ship of this class the Chervona Ukraina had a secondary armament of four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[11]
  • Svetlana-class - One ship of this class the Svetlana had a secondary armament of four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[12]

Minelayers

  • Amur-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of five, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[13]
  • Ruotsinsalmi-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of one, 75/50 gun, in forward, in single mounts.[13][14]

Minesweepers

  • Rautu-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of one, 75/50 gun, in forward, single mounts.[15]

Pre-dreadnought Battleships

  • Borodino-class - The five ships of this class had a tertiary armament of twenty, casemated, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[16]
  • Evstafi-class - The five ships of this class had a tertiary armament of fourteen, shielded, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[17]
  • Imperator Alexandr II-class - One ship of this class the Imperator Nikolay I had a tertiary armament of six or eight, 75/50 guns, in single mounts, after a 1904 refit.[18]
  • Peresvet-class - The three ships of this class had a tertiary armament of twenty, 75/50 guns, in single mounts. Of these guns, eight were mounted in casemates, four on the main deck, four on the battery deck and the last four at the corners of the superstructure on the forecastle deck.[19]

Protected Cruisers

  • Bogatyr-class cruiser - The four ships of this class had a secondary armament of twelve, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[20]
  • Pallada-class - The two ships of this class had a secondary armament of twenty four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts.[21]
  • Vityaz-class - One ship of this class the Rynda had a secondary armament of four, 75/50 guns, in single mounts, after a 1905 refit.[22]

Submarines

  • Bars-class - This class of twenty four ships had a secondary armament of one, 75/50 gun, on forward mounts.[23]
  • Morzh-class - One ship of this class the Tyulen had a secondary armament of one, 75/50 gun, on a forward mount.[24]
  • Narval-class - This class of three ships had a secondary armament of one or two, 75/50 guns, on single mounts.[25]

AmmunitionEdit

Ammunition was of fixed QF type. A complete round weighed between 9.6–10.6 kg (21–23 lb).[2]

The gun was able to fire:[1]

Photo galleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793.
  2. ^ a b c d e DiGiulian, Tony. "Russia / USSR 75 mm /50 (2.9") Pattern 1892 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
  3. ^ "FINNISH ARMY 1918 - 1945: LIGHT COASTAL GUNS". www.jaegerplatoon.net. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  4. ^ "FINNISH ARMY 1918 - 1945: LIGHT COASTAL GUNS". www.jaegerplatoon.net. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  5. ^ "Баян <Bayan> armoured cruisers (1902 - 1911) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  6. ^ "Генерал-адмирал <General-Admiral> (1875) and Герцог Эдинбургский <Gertsog Edinburgskiy> (1877) armoured frigates - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
  7. ^ "Лейтенант Шестаков <Leytenant Shestakov> destroyers (1909) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  8. ^ "Севастополь <Sevastopol> battleships (1914 - 1915) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  9. ^ "IMPERATRITSA MARIYA battleships (1915 - 1917) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  10. ^ "Karjala gunboats (1918) - Finnish Navy (Finland)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  11. ^ "Адмирал Нахимов (Червона Украина) <Admiral Nakhimov (Chervona Ukraina)> light cruisers (1927) and Красный Кавказ <Krasnyy Kavkaz> heavy cruiser (1932) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  12. ^ "Russia / USSR - Светлана (Профинтерн) <Svetlana (Profintern)> class light cruisers (1928)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  13. ^ a b "AMUR mine transports (1901) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  14. ^ "Ruotsinsalmi minelayers (1941) - Finnish Navy (Finland)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  15. ^ "Vilppula minesweepers (1917-1918/1918) - Finnish Navy (Finland)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  16. ^ "BORODINO battleships (1903 - 1905) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  17. ^ "YEVSTAFIY battleships (1911) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  18. ^ "Император Александр II <Imperator Alexandr II> battleships (1890 - 1891) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  19. ^ "PERESVET battleships (1901 - 1902) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  20. ^ "Богатырь <Bogatyr> protected cruisers (1902 - 1909) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
  21. ^ "Паллада <Pallada> protected cruisers (1901 - 1903) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  22. ^ "Витязь <Vityaz> screw corvettes (1886) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  23. ^ "Барс <Bars> (1915-1917), Ёрш <Yorsh> (1917) and Гагара <Gagara> (1917) submarines - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  24. ^ "Морж <Morzh> submarines (1915) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  25. ^ "NARVAL submarines (1915 - 1916) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-15.

External linksEdit