1792 and 1793 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1792 and 1793 were elections of United States Senators that coincided with President George Washington's unanimous re-election. In these elections, terms were up for the ten senators in class 2.

1792 and 1793 United States Senate elections

← 1790 & 1791 Dates vary by state 1794 & 1795 →

10 of the 30 seats in the United States Senate
(as well as special elections)
16 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Last election 16 seats 9
Seats before 17 10
Seats after 18 11
Seat change Increase 1 Increase 1
Seats up 4 6
Races won 5 5

Majority Faction before election


Pro-Administration

Elected Majority Faction


Pro-Administration

Formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of Senators who supported George Washington's administration were known as the Pro-Administration Party, and the Senators against him as the Anti-Administration Party. As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summaryEdit

Senate Party Division, 3rd Congress (1793–1795)

  • Majority Party: Pro-Administration Party (16)
  • Minority Party: Anti-Administration Party (13)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 30
  • Vacant: 1 (later filled by Pro-Administration)

Change in compositionEdit

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

Virginia's elections are considered a single race here.

Before the electionsEdit

After the June 1792 admission of Kentucky.

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7
Ga.
Ran
A8
Ky.
Ran
A9
N.H.
Ran
A10
R.I.
Unknown
A11
S.C.
Ran
A12
Va.
Resigned/Ran
V1
Pa.
P15
N.C.
Ran
P17
N.J.
Retired
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P16
Del.
Unknown
P13
Md. (sp)
Resigned
P14
Mass.
Ran
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Results of the electionEdit

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7
Ga.
Hold
A8
Ky.
Re-elected
A9
N.C.
Gain
A10
S.C.
Re-elected
A11
Va.
Ran/Re-elected
V1
Pa.
P18
R.I.
Gain
P16
N.J.
Hold
P17
N.H.
Gain
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P15
Del.
Hold
P13
Md. (sp)
Hold
P14
Mass.
Re-elected
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next CongressEdit

Two Pro-Administration senators (Benjamin Hawkins of North Carolina and John Langdon of New Hampshire) changed to Anti-Administration.

The vacant seat in Pennsylvania was filled February 28, 1793 by an Anti-Administration senator.

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12
N.H. (cl. 1)
Changed
A13
N.C. (cl. 3)
Changed
A14
Pa.
Late
P16
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1
Key:
A# Anti-Administration
P# Pro-Administration
V# Vacant

Race summariesEdit

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Elections during the 2nd CongressEdit

In these elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1793; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 2)
New seat Kentucky was admitted to the Union June 1, 1792.
Winner elected June 18, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
[2]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
New seat Kentucky was admitted to the Union June 1, 1792.
Winner elected June 18, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
Virginia
(Class 2)
Richard Henry Lee Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned October 8, 1792.
Winner elected October 18, 1792.
Anti-Administration hold.
Maryland
(Class 1)
Charles Carroll Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned November 30, 1792.
Winner elected January 10, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in 1791-1792, leaving the seat vacant.
Winner elected February 28, 1793.
Anti-Administration gain.

Races leading to the 3rd CongressEdit

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1793; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware Richard Bassett Pro-Administration 1788 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.
Georgia William Few Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1793.
Anti-Administration hold.


Kentucky John Brown Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected December 11, 1792.
Massachusetts Caleb Strong Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected in 1793.
New Hampshire Paine Wingate Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1792.
Pro-Administration gain.
New Jersey Philemon Dickinson Pro-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner's election date unknown.
Pro-Administration hold.
North Carolina Samuel Johnston Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1792.[8]
Anti-Administration gain.
Rhode Island Joseph Stanton, Jr. Anti-Administration 1790 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1793.
Pro-Administration gain.
South Carolina Pierce Butler Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected December 5, 1792.
Virginia John Taylor Anti-Administration 1792 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1793.

Election in 1793 during the 3rd CongressEdit

In this special election, the winner was seated after March 4, 1793, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Roger Sherman Pro-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent died July 23, 1793.
Winner elected December 2, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.

Connecticut (Special)Edit

DelawareEdit

GeorgiaEdit

1792/1793 United States Senate election in Georgia
 
← 1789 1792/1793 1796 (special) →
  Majority party Minority party
     
Candidate James Jackson William Few
Party Anti-Federalist Anti-Federalist
Legislative vote 35 5
Percentage 85.4% 12.2%

U.S. senator before election

William Few
Anti-Administration

Elected U.S. senator

James Jackson
Anti-Administration

One-term Anti-Federalist William Few was defeated by fellow Anti-Federalist, James Jackson. Jackson won 24 votes in the Georgia House of Representatives and 11 in the State Senate for a combined total of 35. Few won 3 in the House and 2 in the Senate for a combined total of 5. Jackson took office as a member of the 3rd United States Congress on March 4, 1793. He would later resign in 1795 to run for his state's legislature.

United States Senate election in Georgia, 1792/93[10]
Party Candidate Votes in the House Votes in the Senate Total %
Anti-Federalist James Jackson 24 11 35 85.4%
Anti-Federalist William Few (incumbent) 3 2 5 12.2%
Anti-Federalist George Mathews 1 - 1 2.4%

KentuckyEdit

1792 United States Senate election in Kentucky
 
← 1792 (special) December 11, 1792 1798 →
  Majority party
   
Candidate John Brown
Party Anti-Federalist
Legislative vote Unanimous (exact total unknown)
Percentage 100%

U.S. senator before election

John Brown
Anti-Administration

Elected U.S. Senator

John Brown
Anti-Administration

Incumbent John Brown, who had previously been elected in a special election was easily reelected with no opposition and 100% of votes from the legislators.

Maryland (Special)Edit

MassachusettsEdit

New HampshireEdit

1792 United States Senate election in New Hampshire
 
← 1788 1792 1798 →
  Majority party Minority party Third party
       
Candidate Samuel Livermore Paine Wingate Nathaniel Peabody
Party Federalist Anti-Federalist Independent
Legislative vote 52 28 8
Percentage 58.4% 31.5% 9%

U.S. senator before election

Paine Wingate
Anti-Administration

Elected U.S. Senator

Samuel Livermore
Federalist

Incumbent U.S. Senator Paine Wingate was not reelected. The New Hampshire General Court instead elected Federalist Samuel Livermore, a U.S. Representative, to the seat. Livermore, like his fellow senator, John Langdon, would go on to serve as President Pro-Tempore during this term.

New JerseyEdit

North CarolinaEdit

Pro-Administration Samuel Johnston lost re-election to Anti-Administration Alexander Martin for the class 2 seat. The other senator, Benjamin Hawkins, switched his support from Pro- to Anti-Administration.

Pennsylvania (Special)Edit

There was a special election on February 28, 1793 for the Class 1 seat from Pennsylvania. Incumbent William Maclay's term had ended on March 3, 1791, but the legislature failed to elect a successor due to a disagreement on the procedure to be followed in the election.

The seat remained vacant until Albert Gallatin was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the seat during this election.[11]

Upon agreement between the two houses of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Senate, regarding the procedure to elect a new Senator, an election was finally held on February 28, 1793. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[11]
Party Candidate Votes %
Anti-Administration Albert Gallatin 45 51.72%
Pro-Administration Henry Miller 35 40.23%
Pro-Administration Arthur St. Clair 1 1.15%
Pro-Administration William Irvine 1 1.15%
N/A Not voting 5 5.75%
Total votes 87 100%

On February 28, 1794, the Senate determined that Gallatin did not satisfy the citizenship requirement for service and he was removed from office. He later went on to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. Gallatin was replaced in the Senate by a special election in 1794.[12]

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

VirginiaEdit

Anti-Administration senator Richard Henry Lee resigned October 8, 1792, just before the March 3, 1793 end of term. Anti-administration John Taylor of Caroline was elected October 18, 1792 to finish Lee's term and then re-elected in 1793 to the next term.

SpecialEdit

Virginia special election[13]
Candidate Votes %
John Taylor of Caroline 90 55.6
Arthur Lee 39 24.1
Francis Corbin 33 20.4

RegularEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
  2. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  3. ^ "Virginia 1792 U.S. Senate, Special". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing Mattern, David B., J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross and Susan Holbrook Perdue, ed. The Papers of James Madison, Congressional Series. Vol. 14. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1983. 392.)
  4. ^ "Pennsylvania 1793 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing The Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). March 6, 1793)
  5. ^ "Georgia 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing The Augusta Chronicle and Gazette of the State (Augusta, GA). December 1, 1792.)
  6. ^ "Kentucky 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing The Mirrour (Concord, NH). January 28, 1793.; Election of United States Senators by the General Assembly (typed manuscript). Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort.)
  7. ^ "New Hampshire 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing Osborne's Newhampshire Spy (Portsmouth, NH). June 23, 1792.)
  8. ^ "North Carolina 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing Legislative Papers. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.; Legislative Papers 1792 Box 119. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.)
  9. ^ "South Carolina 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing "Rough House Journals.")
  10. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  11. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 28 February 1793" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  12. ^ "GALLATIN, Albert, (1761 - 1849)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  13. ^ "Virginia 1792 U.S. Senate, Special". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing Mattern, David B., J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross and Susan Holbrook Perdue, ed. The Papers of James Madison, Congressional Series. Vol. 14. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1983. 392.)

External linksEdit