|ʻOkina letter forms|
|The Hawaiian ʻokina or Tongan fakauʻa (Unicode U+02BB), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.|
|The Tahitian ʻeta or Wallisian fakamoga (currently not encoded separately), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.|
ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian: Hawaiian language) within single quotes, font: Linux Libertine. The glyph of the two ʻokinas is clearly different from the one of the opening quote.
The ʻokina (Hawaiian pronunciation: [ʔoˈkinɐ]), also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, in many Polynesian languages.
|Language||Vernacular name||Literal meaning||Notes|
|Hawaiian||ʻokina||Separator; cutting; breaking||Transitionally formalized.[clarification needed] The ʻokina has historically been represented in computer publications by the grave accent (`), the left single quotation mark (‘), or the apostrophe ('), especially when the correct typographical mark (ʻ) is not available.|
|Samoan||koma liliu||"Inverted comma"—inverted (liliu) comma (koma)||Often replaced by an apostrophe in modern publications, recognized by Samoan scholars and the wider community. Use of the apostrophe and macron diacritics in Samoan words was readopted by the Ministry of Education in 2012 after having been abandoned in the 1960s.|
|Tahitian||ʻeta||ʻetaʻeta = to harden||No official or traditional status; may use ' or ‘ or ’|
|Tongan||fakauʻa (honorific for fakamonga)||Throat maker||Officially formalized|
|Cook Islands Māori||ʻamata or ʻakairo ʻamata||"hamza" or "hamza mark"||No official or traditional status; may use ' or ‘ or ’ or nothing|
|Wallisian||fakamoga||By throat||No official or traditional status; may use ' or ‘ or ’|
The ʻokina visually resembles a left single quotation mark (‘)—a small "6"-shaped mark above the baseline.
The Tahitian ʻeta has a distinct shape, like an ʻokina turned 90° or more clockwise.
Orthography and official statusEdit
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The ʻokina is treated as a separate letter in the Hawaiian alphabet. It is unicameral—that is, it does not have separate uppercase (capital or majuscule) and lowercase (small or minuscule) forms—unlike the other letters, all of which are basic Latin letters. For words that begin with an ʻokina, capitalization rules affect the next letter instead: for instance, at the beginning of a sentence, the name of the letter is written "ʻOkina", with a capital O.
Geographic names in the United StatesEdit
The United States Board on Geographic Names lists relevant place names both with and without the ʻokina and kahakō (macron) in the Geographic Names Information System. Colloquially and formally, the forms have long been used interchangeably.
Apostrophes and quotation marksEdit
In the ASCII character set, the ʻokina is typically represented by the apostrophe character ('), ASCII value 39 in decimal and 27 in hexadecimal. This character is typically rendered as a straight typewriter apostrophe, lacking the curve of the ʻokina proper. In some fonts, the ASCII apostrophe is rendered as a right single quotation mark, which is an even less satisfactory glyph for the ʻokina—essentially a 180° rotation of the correct shape.
Many other character sets expanded on the overloaded ASCII apostrophe, providing distinct characters for the left and right single quotation marks. The left single quotation mark has been used as an acceptable approximation to the ʻokina, though it still has problems: the ʻokina is a letter, not a punctuation mark, which may cause incorrect behaviour in automated text processing. Additionally, the left single quotation mark is represented in some typefaces by a mirrored "9" glyph, rather than a "6", which is unsuitable for the ʻokina.
Although this letter was introduced in Unicode 1.1 (1993), lack of support for this character prevented easy and universal use for many years. As of 2008[update], OS X, Microsoft Windows and Linux-based computers and all new major smartphones have no problem with the glyph, and it is no longer a problem in Internet Explorer 7 as it was in previous versions. U+02BB should be the value used in encoding new data when the expected use of the data permits.
The same character is sometimes used in Latin transliterations of the Hebrew letter ʻáyin and the Arabic letter ʻayn (which is not a glottal stop) as well as in the Uzbek alphabet to write the letters Oʻ (Cyrillic Ў) and Gʻ (Cyrillic Ғ). However, "ʻokina" and other Polynesian names are properly reserved for the glottal stop in Polynesian language orthographies. Other glottal stop characters, such as U+02C0 ˀ MODIFIER LETTER GLOTTAL STOP, are inappropriate for the ʻokina.
The glottal stop letter in Tahitian and Wallisian has a distinct appearance, like the turned comma rotated 90° clockwise. This glyph is not currently assigned a separate character in Unicode.
- Unicode Standard 5.1 Archived December 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Hunkin, Galumalemana Afeleti (2009). Gagana Samoa: A Samoan Language Coursebook. University of Hawaii Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-8248-3131-8. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- "Samoa to restore use of apostrophes and macrons". SamoaNews.com. 25 November 2012.
- U.S. Board on Geographic Names: Collection and Dissemination of Indigenous Names (United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Twenty-third Session Vienna, 28 March – 4 April 2006, Working Paper No. 82), S. 3: "An example of this has been the addition of the glottal stop (okina) and macron (kahako) to placenames of Hawaiian origin, which prior to 1995 had always been omitted. The BGN staff, under the direction and guidance of the Hawaii State Geographic Names Authority, has been restoring systemically these marks to each Hawaiian name listed in GNIS."
- The correct Unicode values and HTML entities for Hawaiian in Unicode
- Apple compatibility with Hawaiian added in OS 10.2
- Apple Computer Includes Hawaiian Language Support With Latest Operating System.
- Honolulu Advertiser (September 2, 2002): I mua! Macintosh 'speaks' Hawaiian
- Starbulletin (September 16, 2002): Macs upgrade to isle punctuation
- SFGate (September 9, 2002): Hawaiian language advocates applaud new Mac operating system.
- Honolulu Advertiser (June 28, 2004): Hawaiian spellings catch on, but slowly. (On slow progress in using proper Hawaiian spellings instead of makeshift English spelling.)
- Ulukau: The Hawaiian Electronic Library: Browser information for viewing Hawaiian characters
- The Okina in French Polynesian, a graphic example on the top of the page of the official website of the commune of Faa'a, capital of the French Polynesia (this explains why the INSEE still encodes it like the French apostrophe).
- Polynesian Font hints and information on encoding.