|Dolichovespula maculata, Bald faced hornet|
The Vespoidea are a superfamily of order Hymenoptera of class Insecta, although older taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization, particularly in their recognition of a now-obsolete superfamily Scolioidea. The members of this group are known as wasps and ants.
|Phylogenetic relationships of Vespoid families based on Brothers (1999)|
- Formicidae - ants
- Mutillidae - velvet ants
- Pompilidae - spider wasps
- Rhopalosomatidae - rhopalosomatid wasps
- Sapygidae - sapygid wasps
- Scoliidae - scoliid wasps
- Sierolomorphidae - sierolomorphid wasps
- Tiphiidae - tiphiid wasps
- Vespidae - paper wasps, hornets, potter wasps, yellow jackets, and relatives
Newer research based on four nuclear genes (elongation factor-1α F2 copy, long-wavelength rhodopsin, wingless and the D2–D3 regions of 28S ribosomal RNA—2700 bp in total) suggests the higher-level relationships need to be changed, with Rhopalosomatidae as a sister group of the Vespidae and the clade Rhopalosomatidae + Vespidae as sister to all other vespoids and apoids. Additionally, superfamily Apoidea is found to be within the Vespoidea, suggesting the dismantling of the superfamily into many smaller superfamilies. Finally, families Mutillidae, Tiphiidae, and Bradynobaenidae were found to be paraphyletic.
- Brothers, D. J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysisoidea, Vespoidea, and Apoidea). Zoologica Scripta 28: 233-249.
- Pilgrim, E., von Dohlen, C., & Pitts, J. (2008). "Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies". Zoologica Scripta 37 (5): 539–560. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00340.x.
- Image Gallery from Gembloux
- Vespidae: Potter wasps; Vespid wasps; Social wasps; Hornets; Paper wasps; Yellowjackets