Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
|The Duke of Norfolk|
Sir Edward Howard
Lord Edmund Howard
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham
Lord Thomas Howard
|Noble family||House of Howard|
|Father||John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk|
|Died||21 May 1524|
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, KG, PC, Earl Marshal (1443 – 21 May 1524), styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1514, was the only son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, Katherine Moleyns. The Duke was the grandfather of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Katherine Howard and the great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I. He served four monarchs as a soldier and statesman.
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, was born in 1443 at Stoke by Nayland, Suffolk, the only son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, Katherine, the daughter of William Moleyns (d. 8 June 1425) and his wife Margery. He was educated at Thetford Grammar School.
Service under Edward IV
While a youth he entered the service of King Edward IV as a henchman. Howard took the King's side when war broke out in 1469 with the Earl of Warwick, and took sanctuary at Colchester when the King fled to Holland in 1470. Howard rejoined the royal forces at Edward's return to England in 1471, and was severely wounded at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471. He was appointed an esquire of the body in 1473. On 14 January 1478 he was knighted by Edward IV at the marriage of the King's second son, the young Duke of York, and Lady Anne Mowbray (d.1483).
Service under Richard III
After the death of Edward IV on 9 April 1483, Thomas Howard and his father John supported Richard III's usurpation of the throne. Thomas bore the Sword of State at Richard's coronation, and served as steward at the coronation banquet. Both Thomas and his father were granted lands by the new King, and Thomas was also granted an annuity of £1000. On 28 June 1483, John Howard was created Duke of Norfolk, while Thomas was created Earl of Surrey. Surrey was also sworn of the Privy Council and invested with the Order of the Garter. In the autumn of that year Norfolk and Surrey suppressed a rebellion against the King by the Duke of Buckingham. Both Howards remained close to King Richard throughout his two-year reign, and fought for him at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, where Surrey was wounded and taken prisoner, and his father killed. Surrey was attainted in the first Parliament of the new King, Henry VII, stripped of his lands, and committed to the Tower of London, where he spent the next three years.
Service under Henry VII
Howard was offered an opportunity to escape during the rebellion of the Earl of Lincoln in 1487, but refused, perhaps convincing Henry VII of his loyalty. In May 1489 Henry restored him to the earldom of Surrey, although most of his lands were withheld, and sent him to quell a rebellion in Yorkshire. Surrey remained in the north as the King's lieutenant until 1499. In 1499 he was recalled to court, and accompanied the King on a state visit to France in the following year. In 1501 he was again appointed a member of the Council, and on 16 June of that year was made Lord High Treasurer. Surrey, Bishop Richard Foxe, the Lord Privy Seal, and Archbishop William Warham, the Lord Chancellor, became the King's 'executive triumvirate'. He was entrusted with a number of diplomatic missions. In 1501 he was involved in the negotiations for Catherine of Aragon's marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales, and in 1503 conducted Margaret Tudor to Scotland for her wedding to King James IV.
Service under Henry VIII
Surrey was an executor of the will of King Henry VII when the King died on 21 April 1509, and played a prominent role in the coronation of King Henry VIII, in which he served as Earl Marshal. He challenged Thomas Wolsey in an effort to become the new King's first minister, but eventually accepted Wolsey's supremacy. Surrey expected to lead the 1513 expedition to France, but was left behind when the King departed for Calais on 30 June 1513. Shortly thereafter James IV launched an invasion, and Surrey, with the aid of other noblemen and his sons Thomas and Edmund, crushed James's much larger force near Branxton, Northumberland, on 9 September 1513 at the Battle of Flodden Field. The Scots may have lost as many as 10,000 men, and King James was killed. The victory at Flodden brought Surrey great popular renown and royal rewards. On 1 February 1514 he was created Duke of Norfolk, and his son Thomas was made Earl of Surrey. Both were granted lands and annuities, and the Howard arms were augmented in honour of Flodden with an escutcheon bearing the lion of Scotland pierced through the mouth with an arrow.
In the final decade of his life, Norfolk continued his career as a courtier, diplomat and soldier. In 1514 he joined Wolsey and Foxe in negotiating the marriage of Mary Tudor to King Louis XII of France, and escorted her to France for the wedding. On 1 May 1517 he led a private army of 1300 retainers into London to suppress the Evil May Day riots. In May 1521 he presided as Lord High Steward over the trial of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. According to Head, 'he pronounced the sentence of death with tears streaming down his face'.
By the spring of 1522, Norfolk was almost 80 years of age and in failing health. He withdrew from court, resigned as Lord Treasurer in favour of his son in December of that year, and after attending the opening of Parliament in April 1523, retired to his ducal castle at Framlingham in Suffolk where he died on 21 May 1524. His funeral and burial on 22 June at Thetford Priory were said to have been 'spectacular and enormously expensive, costing over £1300 and including a procession of 400 hooded men bearing torches and an elaborate bier surmounted with 100 wax effigies and 700 candles', befitting the richest and most powerful peer in England. After the dissolution of Thetford Priory, the Howard tombs were moved to the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham. A now-lost monumental brass depicting the 2nd Duke was formerly in the Church of St. Mary at Lambeth.
Marriages and issue
On 30 April 1472 Howard married Elizabeth Tilney, the daughter of Sir Frederick Tilney of Ashwellthorpe, Norfolk, and widow of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, slain at Barnet, son and heir apparent of Sir John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners. They had issue:
- Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
- Sir Edward Howard
- Lord Edmund Howard, father of Henry VIII's fifth Queen, Katherine Howard
- Sir John Howard
- Henry Howard
- Charles Howard
- Henry Howard (the younger)
- Richard Howard
- Elizabeth Howard, married Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and was mother of Queen Anne Boleyn, and grandmother of Queen Elizabeth.
- Muriel Howard (d.1512), married firstly John Grey, Viscount Lisle (d.1504), and secondly Sir Thomas Knyvet
- daughter (died young)
Norfolk's first wife died on 4 April 1497, and on 8 November 1497 he married, by dispensation dated 17 August 1497, her cousin, Agnes Tilney, the daughter of Hugh Tilney of Skirbeck and Boston, Lincolnshire and Eleanor, a daughter of Walter Tailboys. They had issue:
- William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham
- Lord Thomas Howard (1511–1537)
- Richard Howard (d.1517)
- Dorothy Howard, married Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby
- Anne Howard, married John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford
- Catherine Howard, married firstly, Rhys ap Gruffydd. Married secondly, Henry Daubney, 1st Earl of Bridgewater.
- Elizabeth Howard (d. 1536), married Henry Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Sussex. 
- Richardson 2004, pp. 236, 504; Cokayne 1936, pp. 41, 612
- Richardson 2004, p. 236
- Head 2008.
- Head 2008; Cokayne 1936
- Richardson 2004, pp. 141, 236; Cokayne 1912, pp. 153–154
- Richardson 2004, p. 236; Loades 2008
- Richardson 2004, p. 236;Warnicke 2008
- Richardson 2004, p. 236; Hughes 2007
- Richardson 2004, p. 236; Gunn 2008.
- Weir 1991, p. 619
- Richardson 2004, p. 237
- Richardson 2004, p. 237; Riordan 2004
- Richardson 2004, p. 237; Cokayne 1916, pp. 209–211
- Richardson 2004, p. 237; Cokayne 1945, pp. 244–245
- Cokayne, George Edward (1912). The Complete Peerage edited by the Honourable Vicary Gibbs II. London: St. Catherine Press.
- Cokayne, George Edward (1916). The Complete Peerage edited by the Honourable Vicary Gibbs IV. London: St. Catherine Press.
- Cokayne, George Edward (1936). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday IX. London: St. Catherine Press.
- Cokayne, George Edward (1945). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday X. London: St. Catherine Press.
- Cokayne, George Edward (1953). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part I. London: St. Catherine Press.
- Davies, Catherine (2008). Howard (née Tilney), Agnes, duchess of Norfolk (b. in or before 1477, d. 1545), noblewoman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- Gunn, S.J. (2008). Knyvet, Sir Thomas (c.1485–1512), courtier and sea captain. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Head, David M. (2008). Howard, Thomas, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), magnate and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- Hughes, Jonathan (2007). Boleyn, Thomas, earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond (1476/7–1539), courtier and nobleman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Knafla, Louis A. (2008). Stanley, Edward, third earl of Derby (1509–1572), magnate. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Loades, David (2008). Howard, Sir Edward (1476/7–1513), naval commander. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- McDermott, James (2008). Howard, William, first Baron Howard of Effingham (c.1510–1573), naval commander. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- Richardson, Douglas (2004). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company Inc. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- Riordan, Michael (2004). Howard, Lord Thomas (c.1512–1537), courtier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- Ridgard, John (1985). Medieval Framlingham 27. Woodbridge: Suffolk Record Society.
- Warnicke, Retha M. (2008). Katherine (Catherine; nee Katherine Howard) (1518x24-1542), queen of England and Ireland, fifth consort of Henry VIII. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld.
- Harris, Barbara. "Marriage Sixteenth-Century Style: Elizabeth Stafford and the Third Duke of Norfolk," Journal of Social History, Spring 1982, Vol. 15 Issue 3;
- Head, David M. Ebbs & Flows of Fortune: The Life of Thomas Howard, Third Duke of Norfolk (1995), 360pp; the standard scholarly biography
John Dynham, 1st Baron Dynham
|Lord High Treasurer
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
The Duke of York
|Peerage of England|
John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
|Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
|New creation||Earl of Surrey