|Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury (previously Bath)|
|See||Bath and Glastonbury
|Reign ended||18 August 1205|
|Predecessor||Reginald fitz Jocelin|
|Successor||Jocelin of Wells|
|Other posts||Archdeacon of Northampton
Treasurer of Salisbury
|Ordination||19 September 1192|
|Consecration||20 September 1192|
|Died||18 August 1205
Savaric fitzGeldewin (sometimes Savaric FitzGoldwin or Savaric de Bohun; died 8 August 1205) was an Englishman who became Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury in England. Related to his predecessor as well as to the German Emperor Henry VI, he was elected bishop on the urging of his predecessor, who urged his election on the cathedral chapter of Bath. While bishop, Savaric spent many years attempting to annex Glastonbury Abbey as part of his bishopric. Savaric also worked to secure the release of King Richard I of England from captivity, when the king was held by Emperor Henry VI.
Savaric's date of birth is unknown. His father was Geldwin, who was a member of the Bohun family and was probably a second cousin of Reginald fitz Jocelin, Bishop of Bath. Geldwin's father was Savaric Fitzcana, who held Midhurst in Sussex. The elder Savaric's wife was Muriel, who was a granddaughter of Humphrey de Bohun. The younger Savaric's mother Estrangia was a Burgundian and related to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.[a] Savaric's elder brother was Franco. Thus the younger Savaric was a cousin of Emperor Henry VI and also of Reginald Fitz Jocelin, his predecessor as Bishop of Bath.
Savaric first appears in the historical record in 1157 when he is named as a canon of Coutances Cathedral in Normandy. He then was archdeacon of Countances from 1162 to 1174. He was Treasurer of Salisbury in 1174 and archdeacon of Northampton from 1175 to 1187. The medieval chronicler Ralph Diceto says that a Savaric was appointed as Archdeacon of Canterbury, but whether this was the same Savaric is unclear. He incurred large debts to King Henry II of England, which caused the king to complain to Pope Urban III. During the years 1182–1184, Savaric was deprived of his archdeaconries, which may have been connected to the debt issue with the king.
Savaric went with Henry's son and successor King Richard I on crusade, and it was while they both were in Sicily that Savaric obtained his bishopric. In December 1191 he was elected Bishop of Bath. Savaric's election was held under controversial conditions, for Savaric had obtained from Richard I letters allowing Savaric to be elected to the next available bishopric. When Savaric's cousin Reginald was elected to Canterbury in 1191, Reginald went to Bath and pressed the clergy there to select Savaric as Reginald's successor. On the strength of the letters from Richard, the justiciar Walter de Coutances ratified the election of Savaric. The canons of Wells objected because they had not been consulted, but Savaric was ordained a priest on 19 September 1192 at Rome. He was consecrated bishop there on 20 September 1192 by the Bishop of Albano. He went on the Third Crusade with Richard.
When Richard was held for ransom in Germany while returning from crusade, Savaric met with his cousin the Emperor Henry VI in an attempt to secure Richard's release. He remained in Germany throughout 1193 and continued to be involved in the negotiations, until he returned to England at the end of the year. Once Richard was released, Savaric was one of the hostages left behind in Germany to ensure the payment of the remainder of the ransom. It may have been while he was in Germany negotiating about Richard's ransom that he was named imperial chancellor of Burgundy, but as he was not named by that title until 1197, the exact date of his occupation of the office is unclear.
Controversy with Glastonbury
After his consecration, Savaric traded the city of Bath to the king in return for the monastery of Glastonbury. Savaric secured the support of Pope Celestine III for the takeover the abbey as the seat of his bishopric, replacing Bath. The plan was that Savaric would be bishop of Bath as well as abbot of Glastonbury. In his support, Savaric obtained letters from various ecclesiastics, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walter, that claimed that this arrangement would settle longstanding disputes between the abbey and the bishops. The monks of Glastonbury objected to Savaric's plan, and sent an appeal to Rome, which was dismissed in 1196. But King Richard, no longer imprisoned in Germany, sided with the monks, and allowed them to elect an abbot, William Pica, in place of Savaric, who responded by excommunicating the new abbot. With the succession of John as king in place of his brother Richard in 1199, Savaric managed to force his way into the monastery and set up his episcopal see within the abbey. The monks appealed to Innocent III, the new pope.
At first, Innocent took the side of the monks, and lifted Pica's excommunication. While the newest appeal was taking place, Pica and a number of his supporters, who had traveled to Rome to appeal in person, died in Rome in 1200, and some of the monks alleged this was by poison administered on the orders of Savaric. Meanwhile, Innocent had changed his mind, and reinstalled Savaric as abbot, ordering some English clergy to judge the specifics of the case, and allot the revenues of the abbey between Savaric and the monks. Savaric then attempted to secure more control over other monasteries in his diocese, but died before he could set the plans in motion.
Death and legacy
Savaric died at Civitavecchia or Siena on 8 August 1205 while visiting the papacy in Rome on business for Peter des Roches, Bishop-elect of Winchester. He was there to support Roches election which had been contested. Roches also support Savaric in his struggles with Glastonbury, loaning the bishop money and being appointed to a papal commission to deal with Savaric's petitions, which went nowhere because Savaric died before the commission first met. He was buried at Bath.
- How exactly she was related to Henry is unclear. The historian Austin Lane Poole theorized that she was a relative of Joscelin of Louvain, the brother of King Henry I of England's second wife, Adeliza. Another possibility, put forth by the historian Kathleen Thompson, is that she was the daughter of one of Adeliza's household members who came with her from Louvain on her marriage.
- Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 7: Bath and Wells: Bishops
- Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 4: Salisbury: Treasurers
- Ramsey "Savaric (d. 1205)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Thompson "Queen Adeliza" Sussex Archaeological Collections p. 61
- Spear Personnel of the Norman Cathedrals pp. 125–126
- Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 3: Lincoln: Archdeacons of Northampton
- Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 2: Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces): Archdeacons: Canterbury
- Fryde, et. al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 228
- Knowles Monastic Order in England pp. 328–329
- Gillingham Richard I p. 236
- Gillingham Richard I p. 248 and footnote 94
- Knowles, et. al. Heads of Religious Houses p. 52
- Vincent Peter des Roches p. 52
- Vincent Peter des Roches p. 75
- Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third revised ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.
- Gillingham, John (1999). Richard I. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07912-5.
- Greenway, Diana E. (1971). Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 2: Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces): Archdeacons: Canterbury. Institute for Historical Research. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Greenway, Diana E. (1977). Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 3: Lincoln: Archdeacons of Northampton. Institute for Historical Research. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Greenway, Diana E. (1991). Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 4: Salisbury: Treasurers. Institute for Historical Research. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Greenway, Diana E. (2001). Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: volume 7: Bath and Wells: Bishops. Institute for Historical Research. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Knowles, David; London, Vera C. M.; Brooke, Christopher (2001). The Heads of Religious Houses, England and Wales, 940–1216 (Second ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80452-3.
- Knowles, David (1976). The Monastic Order in England: A History of its Development from the Times of St. Dunstan to the Fourth Lateran Council, 940–1216 (Second reprint ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-05479-6.
- Ramsey, Frances (2004). "Savaric (d. 1205)" ((subscription or UK public library membership required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24732. Retrieved 15 November 2007.
- Spear, David S. (2006). The Personnel of the Norman Cathedrals during the Ducal Period, 911–1204. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae. London: Institute of Historical Research. ISBN 1-871348-95-1.
- Thompson, Kathleen (2002). "Queen Adeliza and the Lotharingian Connection". Sussex Archaeological Collections 40: 57–64.
- Vincent, Nicholas (2002). Peter des Roches: An Alien in English Politics 1205–1238 (Reprint ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52215-3.
- Poole, A. L. (1927) "England and Burgundy in the Last Decade of the Twelfth Century", Essays in History Presented to Reginald Lane Poole, ed. H. W. C. Davis pp. 261–273
|Catholic Church titles|
Reginald fitz Jocelin
|Bishop of Bath
as Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury
as Bishop of Bath
|Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury
Jocelin of Wells