Patuxent may refer to:
- Patuxent people, an Algonquian people indigenous to what is now the Mid-Atlantic United States
Places and geological features
- Patuxent, Maryland, an unincorporated community in Charles County
- Patuxent Range, a mountain chain in Antarctica
- Patuxent River, Maryland
- Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service facility in Beltsville, Maryland
- Naval Air Station Patuxent River, an installation of the United States Navy in St. Mary's County, Maryland
- Calvert County, Maryland, once known as Patuxent County
- Patuxent River stone, the state gem of Maryland
- USS Patuxent, the name of several ships of the United States Navy
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