||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2008)|
|Ancestral house||Vukanović dynasty|
|Final sovereign||Stefan Uroš V of Serbia|
|Dissolution||1371 (see fall of the Serbian Empire)|
The Nemanjić (pronounced [nɛ̌maɲitɕ], Serbian: pl. Немањићи, Nemanjići) was the most important dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages, and one of the most important in Southeastern Europe. The royal house produced eleven Serbian monarchs between 1166 and 1371. Its progenitor was Stephen Nemanja, who descended from a cadet line of the Vukanović dynasty (1101–1166). After Stephen (Stefan) Nemanja, all monarchs used Stefan as a personal name, a tradition adopted for the royal pretensions. The monarchs began as Grand Princes, and with the crowning of Stephen II in 1217, the realm was promoted to a Kingdom, and the Serbian Church was established. In 1346, Stephen Uroš IV Dušan was crowned Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks [and Albanians and Bulgarians], and the Archbishopric of Serbia was elevated to a Patriarchate. In 1371, with the death of child-less Uroš the Weak (r. 1355-1371), the fall of the Serbian Empire was ensured; provincial lords obtained the rule of the past provinces, and the Nemanjić survived only through maternal lines in several Serbian houses.
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The Serbs, as Slavs in the vicinity of the Byzantine Empire, lived in so-called Sklavinia ("Slav lands"), territories initially out of Byzantine control and independent. In the 8th century, the Vlastimirović Dynasty established the Serbian Principality. In 822, Serbia "stretched over the greater part of Dalmatia", and Christianity was adopted as state-religion in ca 870. In the mid 10th century the state had emerged into a tribal confederation that stretched to the shores of the Adriatic Sea by the Neretva, the Sava, the Morava, and Skadar. The state disintegrated after the death of the last known Vlastimirid ruler – the Byzantines annexed the region and held it for a century, until 1040 when the Serbs under the Vojislavljević Dynasty revolted in Duklja (Pomorje). In 1091, the Vukanović Dynasty established the Serbian Grand Principality, based in Rascia (Zagorje). The two halves were reunited in 1142.
Serbia under the Nemanjić dynasty
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Serbia reached its height of power during the Nemanjići. The Serbian Kingdom was proclaimed in 1217. Direct result of this was the establishment of the Serbian Orthodox Church in 1219. In the same year Saint Sava published the first constitution in Serbia — St. Sava's Nomocanon.
Stefan Dušan proclaimed the Serbian Empire in 1346. During Dušan's rule, Serbia reached its territorial, political and economical peak, proclaiming itself as the successor of the Byzantine Empire, and indeed was the most powerful Balkan state of that time. Tsar Dušan enacted the known Dušan's Code, an extensive constitution, and opened new trade routes and strengthened the state's economy. Serbia flourished, becoming one of the most developed countries and cultures in Europe. Medieval Serbia had a high political, economic, and cultural reputation in Europe. The Serbian identity has been profoundly shaped by the rule of this dynasty and its accomplishments, with the Serbian Orthodox Church who assumed the role of the national spiritual guardian.
Before his sudden death, Stefan Dušan tried to organize a Crusade with the Pope against the threatening Turks. He died in December 1355 at the age 47. He was succeeded by his son Uroš, called the Weak, a term that might also apply to the state of the empire which slowly slid into a feudal anarchy. This was a period marked by the rise of a new threat: the Ottoman Turk sultanate which spread from Asia to Europe. They conquered Byzantium and then the other states in the Balkans.
- Stefan Nemanja also Stefan I, Nemanja (ca 1166-1199)
- Vukan II Nemanjić (1196–1208), elder son of Stefan Nemanja
- King Stefan Prvovenčani (Stefan the Firstcrowned) also Stefan II, Nemanja (1199–1228), younger son of Stefan Nemanja
- Prince Đorđe Nemanjić (1208–1243), Ruler of Zeta
- King Radoslav (1228–1233)
- King Vladislav I (1234–1243)
- King Uros I (1243–1276)
- King Dragutin (1276–1282)
- King Milutin (1282–1321)
- King Vladislav II (1321 - about 1325)
- King Stefan Dečanski (1321–1331)
- Emperor Dušan (Dušan the Mighty) (1331–1355), King of Serbia (1331–1346); Tsar of Serbs and Greeks (1346–1355)
- Emperor Uros (Uroš the Weak) (1355–1371),
- Emperor Simeon-Siniša of Epirus (1359–1370), son of Stefan Uroš III and the Greek Princess
- Emperor John Uros of Epirus (1370–1373), son of Simeon-Siniša; is the very last ruler of Epirus
See also↑Jump back a section
- Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda, Prvi Period – III
- Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda, Drugi Period – II; Eginhartus de vita et gestis Caroli Magni, p. 192: footnote J10
- Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda, Drugi Period – IV;
- Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda, Drugi Period – V;
- Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda, Drugi Period – VII;
- Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda, Drugi Period – VIII
- Ćorović, Istorija srpskog naroda, Treći Period – I;
- Walter, Christopher. "Byzantine Family in Art and Tradition: The Nemanja Family in Serbia." Conspectus of History 1.6 (1980): 76-87.
- John V.A. Fine. (1991). The early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the 6th to the Late 12th Century. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7
- John V.A. Fine. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4
- The Serbian Unity Congress - Serbian Medieval History.
- Fajfrić, Željko. Sveta loza Stefana Nemanje.
- Veselinović, Andrija & Ljušić, Radoš (2001). Српске династије, Platoneum.
- Ćorović, Vladimir (2005). ИЛУСТРОВАНА ИСТОРИЈА СРБА, Book II, Third Age, Politika.
- CD Chilandar by Studio A, Aetos, Library of Serb Patriarchate and Chilandar monastery, Belgrade, 1998
- Intervju - ДИНАСТИЈЕ и владари јужнословенских народа. Special Edition 12, 16 June 1989.
- Markuš, Jovan. Родослови династија из Зете и Црне Горе
- Medieval Serbia - The Nemanjics
- Chilandar - Nemanjic Dynasty
- Serb Land of Montenegro - The Sacronist Nemanjic Dynasty
- Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands Project - Serbia - Grand Zupan of Serbia, 1166-1217, Nemanjic dynasty, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012
- Cawley, Charles, Chapter 3 - Kings of Serbia 1217-1346, Tsars of Serbia 1346-1371, Nemanjic dynasty, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012
- Serbian Unity Congress - Serbian Medieval History. Nemanjic Dynasty: Stefan Nemanja, Stefan Prvovencani (the First-crowned), Stefan Uros I, Stefan Dragutin, Stefan Uros II Milutin, Stefan Uros III Decanski, Stefan Uros IV Dusan, Stefan Uros V
- Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the Nemanjiden". Genealogy.EU.
- Holy bloodline of Stefan Nemanja by Željko Fajfrić (Serbian)
- History of the Serb People (Third Age) by Vladimir Ćorović. Stephen Nemanya, The Latin Empire and the creation of the Serb Kingdom, Serbian interregnums, Western Orientation in Serbia, Serbia as the main Balkan power, Pressing the Bulgarians as the main Serbian rivals, Creation of a Serbian Empire, The Work of Tsar Dusan, The Fall of the Serbian Empire (Serbian)
- The Genealogies of the dynasties from Zeta and Montenegro by Jovan B. Markuš. The Nemanjics: Page 1, Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 (Serbian)
- The Nemanjics (Serbian)