Mutual knowledge (logic)
Mutual knowledge is a fundamental concept about information in game theory, (epistemic) logic and epistemology. An event is mutual knowledge if all agents know that the event occurred :73. However, mutual knowledge by itself implies nothing about what agents know about other agents' knowledge: i.e. it is possible that an event is mutual knowledge but that each agent is unaware that the other agents know it has occurred.Common knowledge is a related but stronger notion; any event that is common knowledge is also mutual knowledge.
- Osborne, Martin J., and Ariel Rubinstein. A Course in Game Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1994. Print.
- Peter Vanderschraaf, Giacomo Sillari (2007). Common Knowledge. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 18 November 2011.
- Stephen Schiffer, Meaning, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 1988. The first edition was published by OUP in 1972. For a discussion of both Lewis's and Schiffer's notions, see Russell Dale, The Theory of Meaning (1996).