List of Hebrew Bible manuscripts
A Hebrew Bible manuscript is a handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) made on papyrus, parchment, or paper, and written in the Hebrew language. The oldest manuscripts were written in a form of scroll, the medieval manuscripts usually were written in a form of codex. The late manuscripts written after the 9th century use the Masoretic Text. The important manuscripts are associated with Aaron ben Asher (especially Codex Leningradensis).
The original manuscripts and early copies of the Old Testament disappeared over time, because of wars, (especially the destruction of the First and Second Temples), and other intentional destructions made by enemies. As a result, the lapse of time between the original manuscripts and their surviving copies is much longer than in the case of the New Testament manuscripts.
The first list of the Old Testament manuscripts in Hebrew, made by Benjamin Kennicott (1776–1780) and published by Oxford, listed 615 manuscripts from libraries in England and on the Continent.Giovanni de Rossi (1784–1788) published a list of 731 manuscripts. The main manuscript discoveries in modern times are those of the Cairo Geniza (c. 1890) and the Dead Sea Scrolls (1947). In the old synagogue in Cairo were discovered 260.000 Hebrew manuscripts, 10.000 of them are biblical manuscripts. There are more than 200 biblical manuscripts among the Dead Sea Scrolls, some of them were written in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. They were written before the year 70 AD. 14 scroll manuscripts were discovered in Masada in 1963–1965.
Codex Leningradensis is the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible in Hebrew. Manuscripts earlier than the 13th century are very rare. The majority of the manuscripts have survived in a fragmentary condition.
List of manuscripts
- Nash Papyrus, dated to the 2nd BC – 1st AD
- Masorah manuscripts
- Codex Cairensis, (Prophets) pointed by Moses Ben Asher, dated by a colophon AD 895 (the oldest ms bearing the date of its writing), (was in Cairo, now in Jerusalem)
- Codex Leningradensis, (complete) copied from a Ben Asher ms., dated AD 1008, Russian National Library; this ms is the basis of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and other editions.
- Codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus, (Latter Prophets) dated AD 916, Russian National Library
- Aleppo Codex, AD 930, Museum Ben Zwi (Israel), (was complete, supposedly pointed by Aaron Ben Asher, partly destroyed in 1947); this ms is the basis of the Jerusalem Crown edition.
- Reuchlin Codex (Prophets), dated AD 1105
- Erfurt Codices (complete, Berlin), E1 circa 14th century, E2 possibly 13th century, E3 possibly 11th century
- Severus Scroll (named for the Roman Emperor who restored this scroll, reportedly seized from the Temple in Jerusalem, to the Jewish community in 220), a lost manuscript of early 1st century AD, only a few sentences are preserved by Rabbinic literature
- Codex Hilleli, a lost manuscript of circa AD 600, destroyed in 1197 in Spain, only a few sentences are preserved by Rabbinic literature
- Codex Muggeh (or Muga)(="corrected"), lost, cited as a source in Massoretic notations.
- Codex Orientales 4445, dated between AD 820 and 850; the manuscript contains Genesis-Deuteronomy 1:33 (less Numbers 7:47–73 and Numbers 9:12–10:18).
- Codex Sanbuki (named for Zambuqi, on the Tigris River), lost, frequently quoted in Massoretic annotations and apparently seen (circa 1600) by Menahem Lonzano.
- Codex Jericho, (Pentateuch) lost, cited in the notes to a Massoretic manuscript written circa 1310.
- Codex Yerushalmi, lost, reportedly used in Spain (circa 1010) by Jonah ibn Janah.
- Codex Sinai, mentioned in Massoretic notes and reportedly used by Elia Levita (circa 1540).
- Codex Great Mahzor, lost, mentioned in Massoretic notes (the title suggests that this codex contained only the Pentateuch and those selections from the Prophets that were read during the liturgical year)
- Codex Ezra, lost, C.D. Ginsburg owned a manuscript written in 1474 which purported to have been copied from this.
- Cairo Geniza fragments contains portions of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Aramaic, discovered in Cairo synagogue, which date from about 4th century AD
- Ben Asher Manuscripts
- Michigan Codex, (Torah) 10th century.
- Abisha Scroll, text of Torah from the 11th–14th century, housed in the Samaritan synagogue of Nablus
- Dead Sea Scrolls (Between 250 BC and 70 AD)
- H. Kelley, Daniel Stephen Mynatt, Timothy G. Crawford, The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: introduction and annotated glossary, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998, p. 18
- Randall Price, Searching for the Original Bible, Harvest House Publishers, 2007, p. 45
- Thomas Hartwell Horne, An introduction to the critical study and knowledge of the Holy Scriptures (1836), vol. 2, p. 7
- Old Testament manuscripts
- Fragmentos do Gueniza do Cairo
- David Sinclar, An Overvied on the Bible (2006)
- Würthwein Ernst (1988). Der Text des Alten Testaments, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, pp. 38–39; translated into English and published in 1995 as Wurthwein, The Text of the Old Testament (2nd rev. ed, 1995, Grand Rapids, Mich., Wm.B. Eerdmans Publg. Co.)(this is the source for most of the dates of the mss listed).
- Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The text of the Old Testament: an introduction to the Biblia Hebraica. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8028-0788-5.
- Eleazar Birnbaum, The Michigan Codex: An important Hebrew Bible manuscript, Vetus Testamentum, vol. 17 pages 373-415 (Oct. 1967).
- Timothy Lim, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2005, Dating the Scrolls, 
- Würthwein Ernst (1988). Der Text des Alten Testaments, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft 1988, p. 40–47; English translation The text of the Old Testament: an introduction to the Biblia Hebraica
- Malcolm C. Davis, Ben Outhwaite, Hebrew Bible Manuscripts in the Cambridge Genizah Collections: Taylor-Schechter additional series 32–255, with addenda to previous volumes, Cambridge University Library 2003
- Bernhard Pick, Lost Hebrew Manuscripts, Journal of the Society of Biblical Literature,  vol. 2, pages 122-127 (1882).
- C. David Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible (1897, London: Trinitarian Bible Society),  especially chapt. XII, History and Description of the Manuscripts, pages 469-778, and elsewhere in the volume for information on lost mss.
- Paul Kahle, The Hebrew Ben Asher Manuscripts, Vetus Testamentum , vol. 1, pages 161-167 (July 1951); mentions the Leningrad Codex, the Aleppo Codex, the Cairo Prophets (Codex Cairensis), and British Museum Or. 4445.
- [Emil G. Hirsch],"Bible Manuscripts", Jewish Encyclopedia (1902) volume 3, pages 178-181, includes information on lost mss.
- Adolph Neubauer, The Introduction of the Square Characters in Biblical Manuscripts and an Account of the Earliest Manuscripts of the Old Testament, Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica (Oxford Univ.), vol. 3, pages 1-36 (1891).