LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0
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|LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0|
|No:44949 at Manchester Victoria in 1968.|
|Builder||LMS Crewe Works (241)
LMS Derby Works (54)
LMS Horwich Works (120)
Vulcan Foundry (100)
Armstrong Whitworth (327)
|Serial number||AW: 1166–1265, 1280–1506
VF: 4565–4614, 4618–4667
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|39.5 in (1.003 m)|
|Driver diameter||72 in (1.829 m)|
|Length||63 ft 7 3⁄4 in (19.40 m) or 63 ft 11 3⁄4 in (19.50 m)|
|Locomotive weight||72.2 long tons (73.4 t) to 75 long tons (76.2 t)|
|Fuel capacity||9 long tons (9.1 t)|
|Water capacity||4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)|
|Boiler||LMS type 3B|
|Boiler pressure||225 psi (1.55 MPa) superheated|
|Firegrate area||27.75 sq ft (2.578 m2) or 28.5 sq ft (2.65 m2)|
|156 sq ft (14.5 m2) or 171 sq ft (15.9 m2)|
|Cylinder size||18.5 in × 28 in (470 mm × 711 mm)|
|Valve gear||Most Walschaerts; some Caprotti; one outside Stephenson|
|Tractive effort||25,455 lbf (113.23 kN)|
|Power class||LMS: 5P5F
|Axle load class||Route Availability 7|
|Disposition||18 preserved, remainder scrapped|
The London Midland and Scottish Railway's Class 5 4-6-0, almost universally known as the Black Five, is a class of steam locomotive. It was introduced by William Stanier in 1934 and 842 were built between then and 1951. Members of the class survived to the last day of steam on British Railways in 1968, and eighteen are preserved. This class of locomotive was often a favourite amongst drivers and railway fans.
The Black Fives were a mixed traffic locomotive, a "do-anything go-anywhere" type, designed by Stanier, who had previously been with the GWR. In his early LMS days, he designed his Stanier Mogul 2-6-0 in which he experimented with the GWR school of thought on locomotive design. A number of details in this design he would never use again realising the superiority of details not used on the GWR. Stanier realised that there was a need for larger locomotives. These were to be the LMS's version of the GWR Halls but not a copy, as the Hall was too wide to run most places in Britain. They shared similar cylinder arrangement (two outside), internal boiler design and size and 6 foot driving wheel diameters.
In their early days the locomotives were known as the "Black Staniers" from their black livery, in contrast to Stanier's other class of 4-6-0, the LMS Stanier Jubilee Class, which were painted crimson (and known until April 1935 as the "Red Staniers"). Later on, the nickname of the former became "Black Five", the number referring to the power classification. This was originally 5P5F, but from 1940 was shown on cabsides as the simple figure 5.
There were a number of detail variations in the locomotives and they did not all remain in the same condition as built. Some locomotives built under British Railways administration were used as test beds for various design modifications with a view to incorporating the successful modifications in the Standard Classes of locomotives built from 1951 onwards. These modifications included outside Caprotti valve gear, roller bearings (both Timken and Skefco types) on the coupled and tender axles in varying combinations, and an experimental steel firebox. Other locomotives had modified draughting to "self clean" the smokebox (thereby reducing turn-around and disposal times and eliminating or mitigating one of the most unpopular jobs).
The domeless engines
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Numbering started from 5000, with the first twenty being ordered from Crewe Works in April 1934, and a further fifty (5020–5069) ordered from the Vulcan Foundry in 1933. The first of the Vulcan Foundry engines entered service in 1934, and the entire order of 50 was delivered before the first Crewe-built engine, no. 5000, was completed in February 1935. The first 57 locomotives were built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and a low degree of superheat (14 elements in two rows), the boilers of the remaining 13 (5007–5019) were provided with a three-row version (21 elements) having greater total surface area and giving less obstruction to gas flow. The original 57 boilers were converted later to higher superheat (24 elements) and fitted with a dome. Further orders were placed with Crewe (5070–5074), Vulcan Foundry (5075–5124) and Armstrong Whitworth (5125–5224) for a total of 155 locomotives which were also built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and 21 element superheaters. All these boilers, including the early converted ones with a dome, were fitted indiscriminately to any of the first 225 engines, which could appear at various times with domed or domeless boilers.
However, many of the early frames were converted to accept sloping throatplate boilers, as listed below. This modification was carried out to provide a stock of spare boilers for the early engines, which would minimise the time spent in works by engines awaiting a fresh boiler. All locomotives from no. 5225 were fitted when new with the sloping throatplate boiler. All extra boilers made had the sloping throatplate arrangement, and only one example of a later engine having been fitted with a straight throatplate boiler is known - no. 45433. Several different patterns of boiler were used on the locomotives, running into double figures. The throatplate design was the most significant, but there were also different numbers of superheater flues, firegrate arrangement, stay material, dome and water feed arrangements, washout plug placement, etc. in various combinations.
The following locomotives were built with straight throatplate boilers, but were later fitted with a sloping throatplate boiler (date in brackets). Conversion was done by relocating the frame stretcher immediately in front of the firebox. Some of them reverted back to straight throatplate at a later date, and these are also shown where known. Those marked with an asterisk were fitted with a boiler which had the top feed on the front ring on the date shown. In the case of no. 45087 it had previously been converted. The first conversion was carried out on no. 5022, and the last known was on no. 45163, which has been preserved.
5002 (12/37), 45007 (1/60), 45008 (1/60*), 45011 (1/49*+), 5020 (2/37), 5022 (10/36) reverted (10/58), 5023 (2/38) reverted (3/53), 5026 (2/37) reverted (1/59), 5027 (12/36), 5040 (11/36), 5045 (11/54), 5047 (1/37), 45049 (7/54) reverted (8/59), 5054 (1/37), 5057 (11/37), 5058 (11/37), 5059 (7/45), 45066 (4/60), 45082 (12/56*), 45087 (9/55) (12/60*), 5097 (1/37), 5108 (6/45), 45109 (5/48), 5142 (12/37), 45151 (3/51), 45163 (5/61), 45169 (7/55), 45197 (5/60)
+ The subsequent history of 45011 is not clear. Official records have gone missing and have not been relocated. There is a photograph in existence dated April 1963, showing 45011 ex-works with a straight throatplate boiler and simple top feed, i.e. without the dome-like shape.
NB: The official records were not always updated after around 1960/61, although some were. For example in the case of no. 45082, it was fitted with a brand new boiler at the end of 1956, one of the last batch of four boilers that were manufactured for this class. Since it survived in service for a further nine and a half years, there is no doubt that 45082 will have had at least one further boiler lift and indeed a photograph exists of it at Hellifield with a given date of May 1962 showing it with an older boiler with the dome and feed both on the tapered ring. Unfortunately it is not clear from the photo whether it is a straight or sloping throatplate boiler.
The pre-war domed engines
A further 227 were ordered from Armstrong-Whitworth in 1936, the largest single locomotive order ever given by a British railway to an outside contractor. Crewe built a further 20, which had higher degree superheat boilers, with 28 elements, unlike the AW boilers, which had 24 elements.
5471, built at Crewe in 1938, would be the last built for five years. During the early stages of the Second World War, the priority was for heavy freight engines, and the closely related 8Fs were produced in large numbers.
Wartime and postwar domed engines
In 1943 construction was restarted, with Derby Works building its first. Construction continued up to no. 5499. As the numbering block from 5500 was allocated to the Patriot Class, a further batch of 200 locomotives were numbered from 4800 to 4999, followed by a batch from 4658 to 4799. By this time the LMS had been nationalised, and British Railways added 40000 to all numbers. Eventually the 842 examples would number 44658–45499.
Ivatt engines and experimental modifications
From early 1947, engines were built with the top feed on the front ring of the boiler (from no. 4998), and Nos 44658-767 had a longer wheelbase (27 ft 6in rather than 27 ft 2in, with the change in the coupled wheelbase from 7 ft + 8 ft to 7 ft + 8 ft 3in). In 1948, George Ivatt introduced more modifications to bearings and valve gear. 4767 was built with Stephenson link motion in 1947. 44738-57 were built with Caprotti valve gear. The last two, nos. 44686 and 44687 built at Horwich in 1951, were fitted with a new arrangement of Caprotti valve gear, which was later used on some of the BR standard Class fives, and the BR class 8 4-6-2.
Preserved 45379 visiting Oldland Common railway station
|LMS No.||BR No.||Lot No.||Date||Built at||Boiler type||Valve gear (Walschaerts unless stated)||Bearings (plain unless stated)||Additional notes|
|44658–67||199||1949||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44668/9||199||1949||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Skefco roller bearings on driving axles||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44670–7||199||1950||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Skefco roller bearings on driving axles||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44678–85||199||1950||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Skefco roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44686/7||199||1951||Horwich||Forward topfeed||British Caprotti||Skefco roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44688–97||199||1950||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Timken roller bearings on driving axles||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44698–717||192||1948||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44718–27||192||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Steel firebox, Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44728–37||192||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44738–47||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||Timken roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4748–53||44748–53||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||Timken roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44754–5||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44756–7||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||double chimney, Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4758–66||44758–66||187||1947||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Timken roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4767||44767||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Stephenson link motion||Timken roller bearings throughout||double chimney, preserved - Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4997–9||44997–9||187||1947||Horwich||Forward topfeed||4997 was fitted with boiler 12462 from new which had the top feed on the 2nd ring, the other two had later pattern boilers.|
Only four Black Fives are confirmed to have received names, though several have been named in preservation (see below). All of them were named after Scottish regiments. There is also some evidence that 5155 briefly carried the name The Queens Edinburgh during the Second World War, but photographic confirmation of this is lacking.
|LMS No.||BR No.||Name||Date named||Name removed|
|5157||45157||The Glasgow Highlander||1936|
45401 was the first Black Five to be withdrawn from stock in 1961 following a collision at Warrington, although the boiler was re-used and actually lasted to the end of steam on BR. The remainder of the class were withdrawn between 1962 and 1968. Some members of the class survived to the last day of steam on BR in August 1968.
Eighteen locomotives have been preserved:
|4767||44767||George Stephenson||North Yorkshire Moors Railway||Operational, returned to steam in 2010. Currently undergoing minor firebox repairs at Cheddleton. This locomotive was the sole member of the class equipped with Stephenson's valve gear.|
|Llangollen Railway||Operational, returned to steam in 2007|
|4871||44871||Sovereign (former name)||East Lancashire Railway||Operational and mainline certified; owned by Ian Riley, returned to steam in 2009|
|4901||44901||Vale of Glamorgan Railway||Awaiting restoration from Barry Scrapyard condition|
|4932||44932||West Coast Railway Company||Mainline operational|
|5000||45000||National Railway Museum||On static display, wears LMS livery.|
|5025||45025||Strathspey Railway||Stored awaiting overhaul; work expected to commence in Late 2012. Wears LMS livery.|
|5110||45110||Barrow Hill Engine Shed||In storage. Normally based at the Severn Valley Railway but after expiry of 10 year boiler certificate in August 2008, moved to Barrow Hill for storage in early 2009 for at least two years. The tender returned to SVR for use with Stanier Mogul 42968.|
|5163||45163||Colne Valley Railway||Under restoration.|
|5212||45212||Keighley and Worth Valley Railway||On long term loan to Ian Riley, currently undergoing overhaul at Bury.|
|5231||45231||The Sherwood Forester||West Coast Railway Company||Undergoing 9 Month Overhaul at Carnforth|
|5293||45293||Colne Valley Railway||Under restoration|
|5305||45305||Alderman A. E. Draper||Great Central Railway||Operational, mainline certified and based at Great Central Railway Loughborough.
Boiler certificate expires 2020. Owned by The Draper Family, Hull.
|5337||45337||North Norfolk Railway||Operational, returned to steam September 2010. Usually based at East Lancashire Railway Bury|
|5379||45379||Mid-Hants Railway||Operational; returned to steam 10 September 2010|
|5407||45407||Lancashire Fusilier||East Lancashire Railway||Operational and mainline certified; owned by Ian Riley.|
|5428||45428||Eric Treacy||North Yorkshire Moors Railway||Operational, returned to steam April 2010|
|5491||45491||Great Central Railway||Under restoration. Only surviving example with boiler with top feed on the front ring in conjunction with Walschaerts valve gear.|
† In all cases, names are not historically accurate.
Details of the boilers currently fitted to preserved examples.
|Loco Number||Boiler Number||First Loco when new||Description - ( sloping throatplate unless otherwise stated )|
|44767||12870||4790||28 element with dome on second ring, and top feed on front ring|
|44806||9349||5229||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|44871||9478||5358||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring (The last 3 engines this boiler was fitted to have all been preserved)|
|44901||11322||Spare||28 element with dome and top feed on second ring, manufactured 5/42, first used on 5455 7/43|
|44932||10344||5457||28 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45000||9030||5100||21 element domeless, straight throatplate|
|45025||9018||5088||21 element domeless, straight throatplate|
|45110||8963||5183||21 element domeless, straight throatplate|
|45163||9459||5339||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45212||8682||5065||24 element, straight throatplate with dome. Originally 14 element domeless, re-built to 24 element|
|45231||9358||5238||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45293||9514||5394||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45305||9515||5395||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45337||12136||4932||28 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45379||9455||5335||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45407||9509||5389||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45428||9567||5447||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45491||12823||4778||28 element with dome on second ring, and top feed on front ring|
- David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke LMS Locomotive Profiles (three volumes, three pictorial supplements):
- No. 5 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 1. Nos. 5000–5224. (+ pictorial supplement)
- No. 6 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 2. Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear engines from the 5225–5499 and 4658–4999 series. (+ pictorial supplement)
- No. 7 Mixed traffic class 5s: Caprotti valve gear engines and class summary (+ pictorial supplement)
- Brian Reed and Pat Rowledge Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS
- J.S. Whiteley, Gavin Morrison The Power of the Black Fives
- Rowledge, John Westbury Peter; Reed, Brian (1984) . The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. pp. 49, 23. ISBN 0-7153-7385-4.
- Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 48
- Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 50
- Cook, A.F. (1999). Raising Steam on the LMS. RCTS. p. 147. ISBN 0-901115-85-1.
- see Hunt et al.
- Rowledge, J.W.P. (1975). Engines of the LMS built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. p. 11. ISBN 0-902888-59-5.
- The Rev. W., Awdry; G Awdry (1987). The Island of Sodor: Its People, History and Railways. Kaye & Ward. p. 129. ISBN 0-434-92762-7.
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LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0