Kharaharapriya is a rāgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 22nd melakarta rāgam (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rāgam system. Kharaharapriya has a distinct melody and brings out the Karuna rasam, invoking pathos in the listeners. The Kafi thaat of Hindustani music is the equivalent of Kharaharapriya.
There are many theories behind the etymology of the name Kharaharapriya. The most popular interpretation of the name is "Loved (priya) by the slayer (hara) of demon Khara".
Structure and Lakshana
It is 4th rāgam in the 4th chakra Veda. The mnemonic name is Veda-Bhu. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi ma pa dhi ni. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):
The notes are chathusruthi rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, chathusruthi dhaivatham and kaisiki Nishadham. It is a sampoorna rāgam – scale having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Hemavati, which is the 58th melakarta scale. Since the swaras of Kharaharapriya are quite evenly spaced, and since several different types of gamakas are allowed, it is a very versatile, fluid and flexible rāgam that allows for elaborate melodic improvisation within its scale.
Songs sung in Kharaharapriya ragas typically have long, elaborate ālapanās, which exhibit the fluidity of the rāgam. Kharaharapriya songs are usually meant to be sung slow, medium or medium-fast, in order to bring out the Karuna rasa and bhava of the song.
Due to the even spacing of swaras, many janya rāgams (derived scales) are associated with Kharaharapriya. It is one of the melakarta scales that has a large number of janya rāgams. Many of the janya rāgams are very popular on their own, lending themselves to elaboration and interpretation. Some of them are Abheri, Abhogi, Andolika, Bhimplaas (Hindustani music), Brindavana Saranga, Kāpi, Madhyamavathi, Mukhari, Reetigowla,Shree, Dhanaasree, Udayaravichandrika, Shivaranjani and Sriranjani.
See List of janya rāgams for full list of scales associated with Kharaharapriya.
Kharaharapriya has been decorated with compositions by many composers. All except the Dikshitars, including Muthuswami Dikshitar, have composed songs in this rāgam. Thyagaraja has composed many in this rāgam. Muthuswami Dikshitar, one of the three most important composers in Carnatic music, has not composed kritis in Kharaharapriya, but has composed kritis in a closely related ragam Harapriya, which bears stark similarities to Kharaharapriya. A few of the popular compositions are listed here.
- Chakkani rajamargamu, Pakkala nilapadi, Mitri Bhagyame, Rama ni samana, Nadachi Nadachi and Rama neeyata by Thyagaraja
- Okkapari kokkapari by Annamacharya
- Moovasai konda thiruman by Muthiah Bhagavatar
- Senthil andavan, Srinivasa Thava Charanam by Papanasam Sivan
- Satatam thaavaka pada sevanam, by Swathi Thirunal
The basic scale of Kharaharapriya has been used in several film songs in Indian film music. Although rarely authentic, there are several film songs that are set in this scale, or scales derived from this ragam. Ace singer P. Unni Krishnan released his 2012 album on Lord Ayyappan titled SABARIMALAI VA CHARANAM SOLLI VA in which he has rendered a song in Kharaharapriya raagam set in classical melody. The song also illustrates how the Lord learnt the Kalari fight in Cheerappanchira which houses a temple called Mukkal Vattam managed by Lord's Guruvamsam even now.
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.
Kharaharapriya's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major melakarta rāgams, namely, Kalyani, Hanumatodi, Natabhairavi, Shankarabharanam and Harikambhoji. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. For further details and an illustration of Graha bhedam of this rāgam refer Graha bhedam on Shankarabharanam.
- Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
- Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
- Article from Carnatica.net
- Song set in Kharaharapriya on Mukkal vattam Ayyappan