José Martí International Airport
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012)|
|José Martí International Airport
Aeropuerto José Martí
|IATA: HAV – ICAO: MUHA|
|Hub for||Cubana de Aviación
|Elevation AMSL||64 m / 210 ft|
|Source: Aerodrome chart|
José Martí International Airport (IATA: HAV, ICAO: MUHA), sometimes known by its former name Rancho-Boyeros Airport, is located 15 km (9 mi) southwest of Havana, Cuba, and is a hub for Cubana de Aviación, Aerogaviota and Aero Caribbean, and former Latin American hub for Aeroflot Soviet Airlines. It is Cuba's main international and domestic gateway, it serves several million passengers each year; 80 percent of Cuba's international passengers along with Varadero's Juan Gualberto Gómez Airport.
The airport lies in the municipality of Boyeros and connects Havana with the rest of the Caribbean, North, Central and South America, Europe and one destination in Africa. It is named in memory of patriot and poet José Martí.
In the 1960s the airport was bombed by B-26 aircraft from Brigade 2506, a CIA-sponsored group of Cuban exiles, and with the deterioration of relations with the United States and the United States embargo against Cuba, airlines from the United States are not permitted to operate regular scheduled flights to the airport. In the 1990s charter flights began operating from Miami and New York City for U.S. residents with special permission from the U.S. government.
There are currently four passenger terminals in use at the airport plus a freight terminal. Terminal 1 is used primarily for domestic flights. Terminal 2 opened in 1988 primarily for charter flights to the United States. Ten years later on April 27, 1998, the International Terminal 3 was opened by Canada's then Prime Minister, Jean Chrétien, and former Cuban president, Fidel Castro. International Terminal 3 offers many modern facilities and jetways that the former international terminal 1 did not provide. Terminal 5 is operated by Aerocaribbean.
The airport is operated by Empresa Cubana de Aeropuertos y Servicios Aeronáuticos (ECASA).
The current Jose Marti Airport in 1930 replaced the Columbia Airfield, which was the first airport to serve Havana.
The original name of the airport, Rancho Boyeros, meaning the "(Bull) Drover Ranch", was in reference to the name of the plains/territory where the airport was being built. It was known as the Rancho Boyeros because in colonial times a local family had built a thatched hut and provided meals and an inn to the weary drovers that brought agricultural products to the capital from Batabano and Vuelta Abajo.
To give a progressive environment to the airport the old ranch homes were transformed into a small town/village that would serve as an industrial, livestock, agriculture and commercial centre, rising comfortable homes, an industrial technical school, a paint factory and other facilities. The town today is known as the Boyeros Municipality.
- 1929: The construction of José Martí Airport, formerly known as Rancho Boyeros Airport was authorized in March 1929 by General Order No. 223.
- 1930: On February 24, the airport officially opened, replacing Havana Columbia Airfield.
- 1930: On October 30, Cubana de Aviación's (formerly known as Compañía Nacional Cubana de Aviación Curtiss) first ever flight Havana-Santiago de Cuba carried the mail using a Ford Trimotor with stops in Santa Clara, Morón and Camagüey.
- 1936: The first non-commercial flights to Madrid started with an Lockheed Sirius aircraft made out of wood lined with cloth, had a Pratt & Whitney Wasp 550 hp (410 kW) engine, a cruising speed of 180 mph (290 km/h) and no radio. The aircraft named "September 4" was commanded by Capt. Antonio Menéndez Pélaez and was flown via Venezuela, Natal, Brazil, and Dakar, Senegal.
- 1943: By January 1943 the airport had its first control tower and was as well the first control tower in the country.
- 1945: The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is formed at Havana.
- 1945: The first commercial international flight out of the airport was flown by Cubana de Aviación's Douglas DC-3 to Miami on May 15.
- 1948: On May 5 Cubana de Aviación inaugurates its first transatlantic flight Havana-Madrid on board DC-4 "Estrella de Cuba".
- 1950: On April 2, the airport had a second route to Europe, the flight known as "The route of the stars" Havana-Rome was operated by a Cubana de Aviación DC-4.
- 1951: The first night flight landed at the airport from Santiago de Cuba with a DC-3 aircraft.
- 1953: First flight to Mexico City on a Cubana Lockheed L-1049G Constellation.
International service in the 1950s
- Pan American World Airways (PANAM) in the 1950s connected Havana to Miami with roughly 8 daily flights. Besides Miami, it also connected Havana with Mérida (MEX) and San Salvador, with DC-4, and DC-6. It also had flights to the south, including Jamaica, Venezuela and other South American countries.
- Aerolíneas Argentinas connected Buenos Aires to Havana via Rio de Janeiro and Trinidad, and to the north with New York City, with DC-6 equipment.
- Aeropostal Venezolana S.A. flew Miami-Havana-Caracas with Super Constellations.
- Braniff International Airways, connected Havana to the north with Houston, Texas, and to the south with Panama and other South American countries, such as Ecuador, Perú, Colombia, Argentina and others, with DC-6 equipment.
- Delta Air Lines connected Havana with New Orleans and Chicago and to the south with Montego Bay, Jamaica and Caracas. It also flew from Havana to Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. It flew with Convair 440 and DC-7.
- Iberia, vied with Cubana in the route to Madrid, with Super Constellations.
- KLM, flew between Havana-Montreal-Europe with DC-7 and the route Miami-Havana-Curaçao, with DC-6 and DC-7.
- LACSA, Líneas Aéreas Costarricenses, connected Havana with San José and other cities in Central America, such as Guatemala City, mainly with Convair 340.
- Mackey Airlines inaugurated its passenger service between Fort Lauderdale, Florida and Havana, with DC-4.
- Mexicana de Aviación flew between Havana, Mérida and Mexico City, 4 times weekly.
- National Airlines in 1958 flew daily from New York City, Tampa and Miami, with DC-6, DC-7 and Convair 340/440.
- Cubana de Aviación in 1958 flew 5 daily flights with Viscount 818 jet-props to Miami, and Bristol Britannia 318 jet-props to Madrid, Mexico City and New York.
In 1961 diplomatic relations with the United States deteriorated substantially and with the United States embargo against Cuba, airlines from the United States were not permitted to operate regular scheduled flights to the airport (a situation that still continues). That year, two days prior to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion organized by the CIA with the participation of Cuban exiles, Douglas A-26 Invader aircraft from Brigade 2506 bombarded José Martí Airport and Antonio Maceo Airport in Santiago de Cuba.
Because of Cuba's relationship with the Soviet Union, the airport during the 1970s and 1980s enjoyed the presence of many Eastern Bloc airline companies, such as Aeroflot, Czecho-Slovak Airlines, Interflug and LOT Polish Airlines. In 1977 an Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 operating a scheduled flight to Moscow crashed after takeoff, killing 68 of the 70 on board and one person on the ground. In 1989 a second Ilyushin Il-62, operated by Cubana, crashed after takeoff. All of the 115 passengers and 11 crew members as well as 45 persons on the ground were killed.
In 1988 Terminal 2 was constructed in anticipation of future charter flights to the United States. In the 1990s the special charter flights were approved by the US government, to operate from Miami for Cuban citizens living in the United States that have close relatives in Cuba. Today, various airlines operate non-stop scheduled charter service between Havana and Miami. Terminal 2 was remodelled and expanded in 2010.
On December 31, 1997 a Concorde landed in Cuba for the first time, landing at José Martí Airport. The Air France flight London-Paris-Barbados-Havana was received at the airport by Fidel Castro who boarded the aircraft and greeted the crew and passengers. On April 26 the following year, the new International Terminal 3 was inaugurated by Canada's ex-Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and Cuba's ex-president Fidel Castro. In 2002 Air Freight Logistics Enterprise (ELCA S.A.) opened José Martí's first freight terminal known as the Aerovaradero Freight Terminal. The terminal has a 600 t (590 long tons; 660 short tons) capacity, 2,000 m3 (71,000 cu ft) of space in two refrigeration and freezing chambers, with humidity and gas controls.
In 2007 three young recruits who deserted from the Cuban army tried to hijack a commercial passenger aircraft aiming to defect to the United States. At Terminal 1, the would-be hijackers killed one of the hostages, a lieutenant colonel.
Terminals and destinations
Domestic Terminal 1 used to be the main international and domestic terminal building in the airport prior of the opening of terminal 2 and 3-which was constructed in 1998. The terminal is located on the west side of runway 06. It is now used primarily for domestic flights.
International Charters Terminal 2 handles mainly schedule charter flights to and from Miami, Tampa, Ft. Lauderdale and New York for US residents with special permission from the United States government and Cuban citizens with US visas, the scheduled charters are operated by Gulfstream Air Charters, ABC Charters, Marazul Charters, CTS Charters, and C & T Charters. The terminal is located on the north side, just in front of the threshold of runway 24. It was constructed in 1988 when the first charter flights after the revolution were opened from Miami. There are bars, bookshops, newsagents, and also a restaurant on the second floor, as well as car rental.
In 2010 Terminal 2 went through remodeling and expansion.
International Terminal 3 is the main international terminal, it was opened in 1998 by Canada's Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and Cuba's ex-president Fidel Castro, it is the largest and most modern of all terminals. Ticketing and departures are located on the upper level, arrivals and baggage carousels are located on the lower level. There are several car rentals located in the Arrivals Area.
Aerocaribbean Terminal 5 is mainly used by Aerocaribbean, but Aerotaxi, which is a Cuban based charter airline, is also present. In 2010 all flights from the United States were temporarily handled at this terminal due to construction and remodeling at Terminal 2.
- Transfer Between Terminals
There is a bus service between the terminals.
Airlines and destinations
Note: † denotes flights to the United States which are operated as scheduled Special Authority Charters. The scheduled charter flights are operated by Gulfstream Air Charters, ABC Charters, Marazul Charters, CTS Charters and C&T Charters.
|Aero Caribbean Cargo|
|Líneas Aéreas Suramericanas|
|Sky King, Inc.||Miami|
Accidents and incidents
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012)|
- "1977 Aeroflot Ilyushin 62 crash" on May 27 killed 68 of the 70 on-board and one person on the ground. At the time the accident was the deadliest aviation accident in Cuba's history. It remains the second deadliest in Cuba's history. One of the victims was José Carlos Schwarz, a poet and musician from Guinea-Bissau.
- On September 3, 1989, Cubana de Aviación Flight 9646, an Ilyushin Il-62M (CU-T1281) operating a non-scheduled international passenger flight to Cologne (Cologne Bonn Airport), Germany crashed shortly after take-off. All of the 115 passengers and 11 crew members as well as 45 persons on the ground were killed and the aircraft was written off. One of the persons on board was Roberto Volponi, son of the writer Paolo Volponi.
- On March 31, 2003, a Blue Panorama Airlines Boeing 767 (EI-CXO) skidded off the main runway 06 in poor weather and gusting winds. No injuries occurred.
- On May 3, 2007, two army recruits hijacked a plane destined for Miami at José Martí International Airport in Havana. The men killed a hostage before being arrested prior to takeoff. It was the first Cuban hijacking attempt reported since the spring of 2003.
- "Jose Marti Airport diagram". iacc.gov.cu (in Spanish). May 10, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- New York Times,Aeroflot May Shift A Hub to Miami
- "Aerodromos de Cuba". iacc.gov.cu (in Spanish).
- (Spanish) José Martí International Airport website – international terminal information.[dead link]
- "Copa Airlines/Copa Colombia Routemap". Official Copa Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- (English) José Martí Airport new cargo terminal[dead link]
- "Frustrated attempt to hijack a commercial passenger plane". ipsnews.net. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "Aerocaribbean Domestic/International Scheduled Destinations". Official Aerocaribbean Site. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "Aeroflot Destinations". Aeroflot Official Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Air Canada Destinations". Official Air Canada Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Air Caraibes Destinations". Official Air Caraibes Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Air Europa Destinations". Official Air Europa Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Air France Caribbean destinations and frequencies". Official AF Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Avianca Official Website Timetables". Retrieved March 31, 2012.
- "Bahamasair Bookable Flight Destinations". Official Bahamasair Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Blue Panorama Airlines Destinations". Official Blue Panorama Website (in Italian). Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Cayman Airways "Where we fly"". Official Cayman Airways Destinations. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Condor Flugdienst Destinations". Official Condor Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Conviasa Airlines Destinations". Official Conviasa Website (in Spanish). Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Cubana Timetables". Official CU Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "KLM Press Release". Official KLM Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "LAN Perú to launch Havana". Air-Journal (in French). air-journal.fr. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "Neos Airlines Timetables". Official Neos Website (in Italian). Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "TAAG Angola Airlines Routemap". Official TAAG Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "San Salvador – Havana Flight". TACA Airlines Official. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "TACA Group Itinerary". Official TACA Group/Avianca Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Virgin Atlantic Destinations". VS Official Website. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- (English) Americas: Cuba: Officer Dies In Plane Hijacking Attempt, The New York Times, May 4, 2007.
- BBC – Cuba passenger plane crash kills all 68 people on board
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jose Marti Airport|
- Havana Airport Information, (havana-airport.org) (English)
- Cuban Airports
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