Hedy Epstein (born 15 August 1924), née Wachenheimer, is a German-born American political activist known for her support of the Palestinian cause through the International Solidarity Movement and for her background as a Holocaust survivor. Born in Freiburg to a Jewish family, she was rescued from Nazi Germany by the Kindertransport in 1939. She immigrated to the United States in 1948, and she currently resides in St. Louis, Missouri.
Epstein was born to a Jewish family in Freiburg, Germany, and in 1939 fled Nazi persecution via the Kindertransport to England. All but two of her family were killed at Auschwitz concentration camp during the Holocaust. During World War II she worked in munitions factories and joined a group of left-wing German Jewish refugees who hoped to re-introduce democracy in their homeland – "the foundation of my political education which still stands me in good stead today," she says. Some 60 years later, she was interviewed about this experience for the film Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport.
After the war, Epstein worked with the Allied occupying forces in Germany, including working on the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg. In 1948 she immigrated to New York City, then moved to Minneapolis, and then to St. Louis, Missouri. There, she took up activism for affordable housing, the pro-choice movement, and the antiwar movement. In 1982, news reports of the Sabra and Shatila massacres committed by a Lebanese Phalangist militia with the complicity of the IDF, during Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, "horrified" Epstein. Her reaction was to take a different perspective on the Arab–Israeli conflict; she began to express opposition to Israel's military policies. In 2001, she founded a St. Louis chapter of the Women in Black, an anti-war group that originally focused on Israel's occupation. In 2003 she traveled to the West Bank to work with the International Solidarity Movement. She has returned once a year since, claiming to "CounterPunch" that she had been strip searched and cavity searched in 2004 by guards at Ben Gurion International Airport.
2004 speaking tour and controversy
Epstein has spoken about the situation in the occupied territories, and about her own life and experiences, for audiences in the United States. Prior to a talk at Stanford University on 20 October 2004, fliers promoting her presentation "juxtaposed an image of Jews in Nazi Germany with an image of Palestinians at Israeli checkpoints," according to a news article in The Stanford Daily. (Anonymous fliers also appeared which accused Epstein's ISM of advocating terrorism.) After an "appalled" reaction from members of Stanford's Jewish community, event organizers stated that no "direct comparison" was intended by the posters, or would be heard in Epstein's remarks. Epstein echoed these sentiments, avoided comparisons between Nazis and Israelis, and spent little time discussing her background in Nazi Germany, writes the Daily. However, throughout the speech, audience members, many associated with off-campus Jewish organizations, interrupted her talk with shouts of outrage, and extra campus security quietly moved in.
Reactions to the talk were sharply divided. Adina Danzig, president of Stanford's Hillel organization called the lecture "an abuse of history," hoped that "this event and the isolated interruptions by a few individuals were an aberration," and, while acknowledging Epstein's general statement about avoiding comparison, said that "that disclaimer did not undo the damage" and that "[Epstein] made several remarks drawing the [Israeli-Nazi] parallel." 
Nathan Mintz, vice-president of the Stanford Israel Alliance, condemned "Epstein’s rhetoric of drawing comparisons of the initial stages of the Holocaust to the current situation in Gaza and the West Bank" as "outright demonization of Jews" representing "only one piece of what is a much larger trend of anti-Semitism on college campuses today." He added that Epstein's ISM colleagues have "direct ties to terrorist organizations," and that "The atmosphere currently on campuses is not one in which a constructive dialogue about the conflict can legitimately take place."
In contrast, a supporter of Epstein condemned these as "misrepresentations and false charges," citing off-campus activists who, "with the intention of disrupting the event," handed out fliers "demonizing" Epstein and "frequently yelled at and interrupted" her. "At one point," he wrote a man suddenly jumped up while Epstein was talking and recited what appeared to be a prepared statement informing her of pending legal actions against her." He asked why Mintz "failed to mention any of the egregious events" of this sort and "submitted his op-ed before actually seeing the event."
In response to controversy over the paper's initial coverage of the story, "an issue that has come to define more than one volume of the paper," The Stanford Daily's reader editor Jennifer Graham acknowledged that "plenty — if not unfairly too much" coverage was given to the claims of Epstein's critics. She also apologized for the "wrong" and "misleading" decision to run Mintz's op-ed criticizing Epstein's speech before it had happened. "There are claims, that I can neither confirm nor deny, that Mintz’s column factually misrepresents the substance of Epstein’s speech," she wrote.
As a "constructive response" to Epstein's presentation, members of several campus Jewish organizations invited Harvard professor Ruth Wisse to speak at Stanford. "While her audience ate Challah bread and drank champagne for the Kiddush," wrote The Stanford Daily, Wisse placed sole blame for Palestinian suffering on the Arab world and on Palestinian politics, and argued that since opposition to the Jews was the only thing that the Arab world had in common, the center of Arab politics became anti-Semitism. Stanford student Ahmed Ashraf responded with an op-ed contrasting the "pro-Israelis outraged by Epstein’s support for the Palestinians" to the "perfectly respectful" behavior of Arab and Muslim attendees to Wisse's talk, "even as the acidic torrent of hate rained down on them." 
An Anti-Defamation League report from the next year characterized Epstein's talk as an "example of anti-Israel campus activism" which "would meet both the United States government's and [Israeli cabinet] Minister Nathan Sharansky's definitions of anti-Semitism," for "comparing Nazi treatment of Jews to Israeli treatment of Palestinians." An online publication of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs cited Epstein's talk on the same subject at UCSC among "activities that spill over into various forms of hate-speech demonizing both Israelis and Jews," and which "compared Israel to a Nazi state and Israeli soldiers to Nazis." In 2008, the Missouri regional director for the Anti-Defamation League noted, "For someone like Hedy, who came out of the Jewish community at a very difficult time, to criticize Israel ... well, it's difficult. Some people perceive it as disloyal." 
In December 2009 she traveled to Cairo to take part in the planned Gaza Freedom March, a march with Palestinians protesting the blockade of Gaza. When Egypt closed the border, some 1,300 international activists--Epstein among them--remained in Cairo for a week, demonstrating daily.
In 2010, she embarked on one of the ships that intended to deliver humanitarian aid to Gaza, but decided in Cyprus, not to take part in the trip.
She is planning to take place in the 2011 flotilla as well.
- EL-NAGGAR, MONA (29 December 2009). "Protesters Gather in Cairo for March to Gaza". New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
- Various authors. Epstein Lecture a Vision for Peace. The Stanford Daily, 22 October 2004.
- Jansen, Michael (6 August 2008). "Holocaust survivor joins peace voyage into troubled waters". Irish Times. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- Hedy Epstein (personal website)
- Volland, Victor. For Holocaust Survivors, the Pain Remains. St. Louis Post Dispatch, 30 December 1997.
- McDonnell Twair, Pat. Against all odds. The Middle East, April 2007.
- Cattori, Silvia. "I Was Not Prepared for the Horrors I Saw:" An Interview with Hedy Epstein. CounterPunch, 13 June 2007.
- Burmon, Andrew. Tensions Boil as Holocaust Survivor Decries Treatment of Palestinians. The Stanford Daily, 21 October 2004.
- Danzig, Adina. Epstein lecture: an abuse of history The Stanford Daily, 22 October 2004.
- Mintz, Nathan. Holocaust event representative of rising tide of anti-Semitic rhetoric The Stanford Daily, 21 October 2004.
- Amen, Segun. Epstein victimized by a harsh audience. The Stanford Daily, 21 October 2004.
- Graham, Jennifer. Handling the Middle East conflict The Stanford Daily, 1 November 2004.
- Burmon, Andrew and Victoria Degtyareva. Wisse: Palestine not Israel’s fault The Stanford Daily, 1 November 2004.
- Ashraf, Ahmed. Talk about Middle East with care. The Stanford Daily, 1 November 2004.
- ADL Statement to US Commission on Civil Rights: Anti-Semitic Incidents on College Campuses. 18 November 2005.
- Beckwith, Leila and Tammi Rossman-Benjamin and Ilam Benjamin. Faculty Efforts to Combat Anti-Semitism and Anti-Israeli Bias at the University of California, Santa Cruz. 1 September 2005.
- Brown, Sylvester Jr. 'Traitor' or peacemaker, activist won't do nothing. St Louis Post-Dispatch, 29 June 2008.
- Agence France Presse. Activists sail from Cyprus determined to break Gaza blockade. 22 August 2008.
- Urquhart, Conal (26 June 2011). "Israel accused of trying to intimidate Gaza flotilla journalists". The Guardian.
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