Gustaf Düben (also Gustav) (1628 – 1690) was a Swedish organist and composer.
Düben was born and died in Stockholm. He was the grandson of the German-born Andreas Düben, who had been organist at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig, and son of the composer and court kapellmeister Anders Düben (the Younger)]. In 1663, he succeeded his father as both hovkapellmästare, director of the Royal Swedish Court Orchestra, and organist of the German St Gertrud Church in Stockholm.
He was the father of four children: Gustav von Düben the Younger (1659-1726), Joachim von Düben the Elder (1671-1730), Emerentia von Düben (1669-1743) and Anders von Düben (the Younger) (1673-1738).Gustaf the younger and Anders the Younger appears to have been the only of his children who followed in his father's footsteps as a composer, courtier and eventually kapellmeister.
The Düben collection of manuscripts includes many unicae of German baroque music.