Frederick Law Olmsted
|Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. Jr.|
April 26, 1822|
|Died||August 28, 1903
|Occupation||landscape architect, journalist|
|Children||John, Marion and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.|
|Parents||John and Charlotte Olmsted|
Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822 – August 28, 1903) was an American journalist, social critic, public administrator, and landscape designer. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture, although many scholars have bestowed that title upon Andrew Jackson Downing. Olmsted was famous for co-designing many well-known urban parks with his senior partner Calvert Vaux, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City.
Other projects that Olmsted was involved in include the country's first and oldest coordinated system of public parks and parkways in Buffalo, New York; the country's oldest state park, the Niagara Reservation in Niagara Falls, New York; one of the first planned communities in the United States, Riverside, Illinois; Mount Royal Park in Montreal, Quebec; the Emerald Necklace in Boston, Massachusetts; Highland Park in Rochester, New York; Belle Isle Park, in the Detroit River for Detroit, Michigan; Presque Isle Park in Marquette, Michigan; the Grand Necklace of Parks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Cherokee Park and entire parks and parkway system in Louisville, Kentucky; the 735-acre (297 ha) Forest Park in Springfield, Massachusetts, featuring America's first public "wading pool"; the George Washington Vanderbilt II Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina; the master plans for the University of California, Berkeley and Stanford University near Palo Alto, California; and Montebello Park in St. Catharines, Ontario. In Chicago his projects include: Marquette Park; Jackson Park; Washington Park; the Midway Plaisance for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition; the south portion of Chicago's "emerald necklace" boulevard ring; Cadwalader Park in Trenton, New Jersey; and the University of Chicago campus. In Washington, D.C., he worked on the landscape surrounding the United States Capitol building.
The quality of Olmsted's landscape architecture was recognized by his contemporaries, who showered him with prestigious commissions. His work, especially in Central Park in New York City, set a standard of excellence that continues to influence landscape architecture in the United States. His second line of achievement involves his activism in conservation, including work at Niagara Falls, the Adirondack region of upstate New York, and the National Park system. Thirdly he played a major role in organizing and providing medical services to the Union Army in the Civil War.
Early life and education
Olmsted was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on April 26, 1822. His father, John Olmsted, was a prosperous merchant who took a lively interest in nature, people, and places; Frederick Law and his younger brother, John Hull, also showed this interest. His mother, Charlotte Law (Hull) Olmsted, died before his fourth birthday. His father remarried in 1827 to Mary Ann Bull, who shared her husband's strong love of nature and had perhaps a more cultivated taste.
When the young Olmsted was almost ready to enter Yale College, as a graduate of Phillips Academy in 1838, sumac poisoning weakened his eyes so he gave up college plans. After working as a seaman, merchant, and journalist, Olmsted settled on a farm in January 1848 on the south shore of Staten Island which his father helped him acquire. This farm, originally named the Akerly Homestead, was renamed Tosomock Farm by Olmsted. It was later renamed "The Woods of Arden" by owner Erastus Wiman. (The house in which Olmsted lived still stands at 4515 Hylan Boulevard, near Woods of Arden Road.)
Marriage and Family
On June 13, 1859, Olmsted married Mary Cleveland (Perkins) Olmsted, the widow of his brother John (who had died in 1857). Daniel Fawcett Tiemann, the mayor of New York officiated the wedding. He adopted her three sons (his nephews), among them John Charles Olmsted. Frederick and Mary had two children together who survived infancy: a daughter, Marion (born October 28, 1861) and a son Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Their first child, John Theodore Olmsted, was born on June 13, 1860 and died in infancy.
Olmsted had a significant career in journalism. In 1850 he traveled to England to visit public gardens, where he was greatly impressed by Joseph Paxton's Birkenhead Park. He subsequently wrote and published Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England in 1852. This supported his getting additional work.
Interested in the slave economy, he was commissioned by the New York Daily Times (now The New York Times) to embark on an extensive research journey through the American South and Texas from 1852 to 1857. His dispatches to the Times were collected into three volumes (A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States (1856),A Journey Through Texas (1857), A Journey in the Back Country in the Winter of 1853-4 (1860)) which remain vivid first-person social documents of the pre-war South. A one-volume abridgment, Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom (1861), was published during the first six months of the American Civil War at the suggestion of Olmsted's English publisher. . To this he wrote a new introduction (on "The Present Crisis") in which he stated explicitly his views on the effect of slavery on the economy and social conditions of the southern states.
My own observation of the real condition of the people of our Slave States, gave me ... an impression that the cotton monopoly in some way did them more harm than good; and although the written narration of what I saw was not intended to set this forth, upon reviewing it for the present publication, I find the impression has become a conviction
He argued that slavery had made the slave states inefficient (a set amount of work took 4 times as long in Virginia as in the North) and backward both economically and socially. The profits of slavery fell to no more than 8,000 owners of large plantations; a somewhat larger group had about the standard of living of a New York City policeman, but the proportion of the free white men who were as well-off as a Northern working man was small. Slavery meant that 'the proportion of men improving their condition was much less than in any Northern community; and that the natural resources of the land were strangely unused, or were used with poor economy'
Southern civilization was restricted to the wealthy plantation owners; the poverty of the rest of the Southern white population prevented the development of civil amenities taken for granted in the North, he said.
'The citizens of the cotton States, as a whole, are poor. They work little, and that little, badly; they earn little, they sell little; they buy little, and they have little – very little – of the common comforts and consolations of civilized life. Their destitution is not material only; it is intellectual and it is moral... They were neither generous nor hospitable and their talk was not that of evenly courageous men.'
In 1865 Olmsted co-founded the magazine The Nation.
New York City's Central Park
Andrew Jackson Downing, the charismatic landscape architect from Newburgh, New York, was one of the first who proposed the development of New York's Central Park in his role as publisher of The Horticulturist magazine. A friend and mentor to Olmsted, Downing introduced him to the English-born architect Calvert Vaux. Downing had brought Vaux from England as his architect collaborator. After Downing died in July 1852, in a widely publicized steamboat explosion on the Hudson River, Olmsted and Vaux entered the Central Park design competition together, against Egbert Ludovicus Viele among others. Vaux had invited the less experienced Olmsted to participate in the design competition with him, having been impressed with Olmsted's theories and political contacts. Prior to this, in contrast with the more experienced Vaux, Olmsted had never actually designed and executed a landscape design.
They were announced as winners in 1858. On his return from the South, Olmsted began executing their plan almost immediately. Olmsted and Vaux continued their informal partnership to design Prospect Park in Brooklyn from 1865 to 1873. That was followed by other projects. Vaux remained in the shadow of Olmsted's grand public personality and social connections.
The design of Central Park embodies Olmsted's social consciousness and commitment to egalitarian ideals. Influenced by Downing and his own observations regarding social class in England, China, and the American South, Olmsted believed that the common green space must always be equally accessible to all citizens. This principle is now fundamental to the idea of a "public park", but was not assumed as necessary then. Olmsted's tenure as park commissioner in New York was a long struggle to preserve that idea.
Leader of Sanitary Commission
Olmsted took leave as director of Central Park to work as Executive Secretary of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, a precursor to the Red Cross in Washington, D.C. He tended to the wounded during the American Civil War. In 1862 during Union General George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign, Olmsted headed the medical effort for the sick and wounded at White House in New Kent County, where there was a ship landing on the Pamunkey River.
On the home front, Olmsted was one of the six founding members of the Union League Club of New York.
In addition to the above Olmsted helped to raise three colored (African American) regiments in New York City and organized a fair which raised one million dollars for the United States Sanitary Commission.
In recognition of his services during the Civil War, Olmsted was elected a Third Class member of the Massachusetts Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS) on May 2, 1888 and was assigned insignia number 6345. Olmsted's election to MOLLUS is significant in that he was one of the few civilians elected to membership in an organization composed almost exclusively of military officers and their descendants.  In 1891 he joined the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by right of his descent from his grandfather Benjamin Olmstead who served in the 4th Connecticut Regiment in 1775.
U.S. park designer
In 1865 Vaux and Olmsted formed Olmsted, Vaux and Company. When Olmsted returned to New York, he and Vaux designed Prospect Park; suburban Chicago's Riverside parks; the park system for Buffalo, New York; Milwaukee, Wisconsin's grand necklace of parks; and the Niagara Reservation at Niagara Falls.
Olmsted not only created numerous city parks around the country, he also conceived of entire systems of parks and interconnecting parkways to connect certain cities to green spaces. Some of the best examples of the scale on which Olmsted worked are the park system designed for Buffalo, New York, one of the largest projects; the system he designed for Milwaukee, Wisconsin and the park system designed for Louisville, Kentucky, which was one of only four completed Olmsted-designed park systems in the world.
Olmsted was a frequent collaborator with architect Henry Hobson Richardson, for whom he devised the landscaping schemes for half a dozen projects, including Richardson's commission for the Buffalo State Asylum.
In 1883 Olmsted established what is considered to be the first full-time landscape architecture firm in Brookline, Massachusetts. He called the home and office compound Fairsted. It is now the restored Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site. From there Olmsted designed Boston's Emerald Necklace, the campuses of Stanford University and the University of Chicago, as well as the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, among many other projects.
Olmsted was an important early leader of the conservation movement in the United States. An expert on California, he helped convince Congress to set up the first national park at Yosemite Valley. In the 1880s he was active in efforts to conserve the natural wonders of Niagara Falls, which was threatened with industrialization by the building electrical power plants. At the same time he campaigned to preserve the Adirondack region in upstate New York. He was one of the founders of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 1898. To honor his early work in preserving Yosemite Valley, the promontory Olmsted Point near Tenaya Lake in Yosemite National Park was named after him.
Death and legacy
In 1895 senility forced Olmsted to retire. In 1898 he moved to Belmont, Massachusetts, and took up residence as a patient at McLean Hospital, for whose grounds he had submitted a design which was never executed. He remained there until his death in 1903. He was buried in the Old North Cemetery, Hartford, Connecticut.
After Olmsted's retirement and death, his sons John Charles Olmsted and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., continued the work of their firm, doing business as the Olmsted Brothers. The firm lasted until 1980. Many works by the Olmsted sons are mistakenly credited to Fredrick Law Olmsted today. For instance, the Olmsted Brothers firm did a park plan for Portland, Maine, in 1905, creating a series of connecting parkways between existing parks and suggesting improvements to those parks. The oldest of these parks, Deering Oaks, had been designed by City Engineer William Goodwin in 1879 but is today frequently described as a Frederick Law Olmsted designed park.
A quotation from Olmsted's friend and colleague architect Daniel Burnham could serve as an epitaph. Referring to Olmsted in March 1893, Burnham said, "An artist, he paints with lakes and wooded slopes; with lawns and banks and forest covered hills; with mountain sides and ocean views."
Olmsted's principles of design
||This article may contain original research. (November 2012)|
Drawing influences from English landscape and gardening, Olmsted’s principles of design, generally speaking, encourage the full utilization of the naturally occurring features of a given space, its “genius”; the subordination of individual details to the whole so that decorative elements do not take precedence, but rather the whole space; concealment of design, design that does not call attention to itself; design which works on the unconscious to produce relaxation; and utility or purpose over ornamentation. A bridge, a pathway, a tree, a pasture: any and all elements are brought together to produce a particular effect.
Olmsted designed primarily in the pastoral and picturesque styles, each to achieve a particular effect. The pastoral style featured vast expanses of green with small lakes, trees and groves and produced a soothing, restorative effect on the viewer. The picturesque style covered rocky, broken terrain with teeming shrubs and creepers and struck the viewer with a sense of nature’s richness. The picturesque style played with light and shade to lend the landscape a sense of mystery.
Scenery was designed to enhance the sense of space: indistinct boundaries using plants, brush and trees as opposed to sharp ones; interplay of light and shadow close up and blurred detail further away. A vast expanse of greenery at the end of which lies a grove of yellow poplar; a path that winds through a bit of landscape and intersects with others, dividing the terrain into triangular islands of successive new views.
Subordination strives to use all objects and features in the service of the design and its intended effect. It can be seen in the subtle use of naturally occurring plants throughout the park. Non-native species planted for the sake of their own uniqueness defeat the purpose of design, as that very uniqueness draws attention to itself where the intention is to enable relaxation: utility above all else. Separation applies to areas designed in different styles and different uses enhancing safety and reducing distraction. A key feature of Central Park is the use of sunken roadways which traverse the park and are specifically dedicated to vehicles as opposed to winding paths designated specifically for pedestrians.
A beautiful example of this mix of principles is seen in the Park’s Mall in New York's Central Park, a large promenade leading to the Bethesda Terrace and the single formal feature in Olmsted and Vaux’s original naturalistic design. The designers wrote that a "'grand promenade’ was an ‘essential feature of a metropolitan park’"; however, its formal symmetry, its style, though something of an aberration, was designed so as to be subordinate to the natural view surrounding it. Wealthy passengers were let from their carriages at its south end. The carriage would then drive around to the Terrace, which overlooked the Lake and Ramble to pick them up, saving them the trouble of needing to double back on foot. The Promenade was lined with slender elms and offered views of Sheep Meadow. Affluent New Yorkers, who rarely walked through the park, mixed with the less well-to-do, and all enjoyed an escape from the hustle and bustle of the surrounding city.
Academic campuses designed by Olmsted
Olmsted designed numerous school and college campuses between 1857 and 1895.
From 1895 to 1950, the Olmsted Brothers (his successors) added to some of their father's initial projects, as well as designing new ones. (See their article for projects.) Together, these works totaled 355. Some of the most famous of Frederick Law Olmsted are listed here.
Other notable Olmsted commissions
- Arnold Arboretum, Boston, Massachusetts
- Atwater Park,Springfield], Massachusetts
- Back Bay Fens, Arborway and Riverway, Boston, Massachusetts
- Bayard Cutting Arboretum State Park, Great River, New York on Long Island
- Beardsley Park, Bridgeport, Connecticut, 1884
- Beechcroft Gardens, Roches Point, Ontario, ca. 1870
- Belle Isle Park, Detroit, Michigan, master plan and landscape in the 1880s
- Biltmore Estate grounds, Asheville, North Carolina
- Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey, 1900 redesign
- Brandywine Park, Wilmington, Delaware, 1886
- Brookdale Park, New Jersey, built 1928–1931
- The parks system of Buffalo, New York
- Butler Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island
- Buttonwood Park, New Bedford, Massachusetts
- Cadwalader Park, Trenton, New Jersey
- Carroll Park, Bay City, Michigan
- Central Park, Manhattan, New York City, New York, 1853 (opened in 1856)
- Cherokee Park, Louisville, Kentucky
- Civic Center Park, Denver, Colorado
- Congress Park, Saratoga Springs, New York
- Cushing Island, Maine
- Deering Oaks, Portland, Maine
- Downing Park, Newburgh, New York
- Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, Maryland
- Druid Hills, Georgia
- Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York
- Edgewood Park, Westville, New Haven, Connecticut
- Elizabeth Park, Hartford & West Hartford, Connecticut
- Elmwood Cemetery, Detroit, Michigan
- Fairmount Park, Riverside, California
- Florham, former estate of Hamilton and Florence (Vanderbilt) Twombly. Now the campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, New Jersey
- Forest Park, Springfield, Massachusetts, designed in 1893
- Forest Park, Queens, New York
- Fort Greene Park, Brooklyn, New York
- Franklin Park, Boston, Massachusetts
- Genesee Valley Park, Rochester, New York
- George Ward Park, Birmingham, Alabama
- Glen Magna Farms, Danvers, Massachusetts
- Grand Army Plaza, Brooklyn, New York
- Highland Park, Rochester, New York
- Hubbard Park, Meriden, Connecticut
- The Institute of Living, Hartford, Connecticut, 1860s
- Jackson Park, originally South Park, Chicago, Illinois
- Kykuit Gardens, Rockefeller family estate, Mount Pleasant, New York from 1897
- Lakehurst Gardens, Roches Point, Ontario, ca. 1870
- Lake Park, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
- Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Portland, Oregon
- Lynn Woods, Lynn, Massachusetts
- Manor Park, Larchmont, New York
- Maplewood Park, Rochester, New York
- Middlesex School, Concord, Massachusetts
- MIT Endicott House, Dedham, Massachusetts
- Montebello Park, St. Catharines, Ontario
- Morningside Park, New York City, New York
- Mount Royal Park, Montreal, Quebec, inaugurated in 1876
- Mountain View Cemetery, Oakland, California, dedicated in 1865
- National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.
- Nay Aug Park, Scranton, Pennsylvania
- New York State Hospital for the Insane, Buffalo, New York
- Newton City Hall landscaping, Newton, Massachusetts, designed by Henry Vincent Hubbard of the Olmsted Brothers firm, dedicated 1932
- Niagara Reservation (now Niagara Falls State Park), Niagara Falls, New York, dedicated in 1885
- North Park, Fall River, Massachusetts (1901)
- Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, New York
- Olmsted Linear Park Atlanta, Georgia
- Oyster Harbors, Osterville, Massachusetts
- Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, California
- Pinehurst, North Carolina, ground broken in 1895
- Point Chautauqua, New York, a Baptist planned resort community
- Various parks in Portland, Oregon
- Presque Isle Park, Marquette, Michigan
- Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument Fort Greene Park, Brooklyn, New York
- Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York, finished 1868
- Public Pleasure Grounds, San Francisco, California
- River Park (now Riverside Park), Milwaukee, Wisconsin
- Village of Riverside, Illinois
- Riverside Drive, Manhattan, New York
- Riverside Park, Manhattan, New York
- The Rockery, Easton, Massachusetts
- Ruggles Park, Fall River, Massachusetts
- Seaside Park, Bridgeport, Connecticut, 1860s
- Various parks in Seattle, Washington
- Seneca Park, Louisville, Kentucky
- Seneca Park, Rochester, New York
- Shelburne Farms, Shelburne, Vermont
- Skillman Epilepsy Hospital (subsequently North Princeton Developmental Center) Montgomery, New Jersey
- South Mountain Reservation, Essex County, New Jersey (done by successors, not by Olmsted senior)
- South Park (now Kennedy Park), Fall River, Massachusetts
- Stanford University, Palo Alto, California
- Sudbrook Park, Baltimore, Maryland, 1889
- Olmsted Subdivision Historic District, Swampscott, Massachusetts
- Tyler Park, Lowell, Massachusetts. Smallest park Olmsted and associates designed
- United States Capitol grounds, Washington, D.C.
- The Uplands, Victoria, British Columbia, 1907
- Utah State Capitol grounds master plan, Salt Lake City, Utah
- Thompson Park, Watertown, New York
- Town of Vandergrift, Pennsylvania, 1895
- Vanderbilt Mausoleum, New York City, New York
- Walnut Hill Park, New Britain, Connecticut
- West Park Zoological Gardens (now Washington Park), Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
- Whitman Town Park, Whitman, Massachusetts, circa 1875
- Woodburn Circle, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia
- Wood Island Park, Boston, Massachusetts (taken by eminent domain in the 1960s to expand Logan International Airport)
- World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Illinois, 1893
- World's End, formerly the John Brewer Estate, Hingham, Massachusetts, 1889
- Wright Brothers Hill, Dayton, Ohio, 1938–1940
Olmsted sites by State and Province
- Roches Point: Beechcroft Gardens, ca. 1870
- Roches Point: Lakehurst Gardens, ca. 1870
- St. Catharines: Montebello Park
- Berkeley: Piedmont Avenue
- Oakland: Mountain View Cemetery, dedicated in 1865
- Palo Alto: Stanford University
- Riverside: Fairmount Park
- San Francisco: Public Pleasure Grounds
- New Britain: Walnut Hill Park
- New Haven: Edgewood Park
- Wilmington: Brandywine Park, 1886
- Bradley Park
- Riverside: Village of Riverside
- Emerald Necklace:
- Charlestown Heights
- Commonwealth Avenue - Brighton
- North End Park and Copps Hill Terrace
- Pleasure Bay
- Wood Island Park (taken by eminent domain in the 1960s to expand Logan International Airport)
- Concord: Middlesex School
- Danvers: Glen Magna Farms
- Dartmouth: Country Club of New Bedford, adapted estate of Holden Brownell to accommodate activities of the new club
- Dedham: MIT Endicott House
- Easton: The Rockery
- Fall River:
- North Park, 1901
- Groton: Groton School campus
- Ruggles Park
- South Park (now Kennedy Park)
- Hingham: World's End, formerly the John Brewer Estate, 1889
- Lowell: Tyler Park (smallest park Olmsted and associates designed)
- Lynn: Lynn Woods
- Malden: Fellsmere Park Parkways, 1893
- New Bedford: Buttonwood Park
- Newton: City Hall park, 1932
- Osterville: Oyster Harbors
- Springfield: Forest Park
- Swampscott: Olmsted Subdivision Historic District
- Whitman: Whitman Town Park, circa 1875
- Worcester: Elm Park, 1854
- Bay City: Carroll Park
- Marquette: Presque Isle Park
- Bloomfield & Montclair: Brookdale Park, built 1928–1931
- Essex County: South Mountain Reservation (done by successors, not by Olmsted senior)
- Florham Park: Florham, former estate of Hamilton and Florence (Vanderbilt) Twombly. Now the campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University
- Union County: Warinanco Park, built 1923
- Newark: Branch Brook Park, 1900 redesign
- Lawrenceville: Lawrenceville School, central campus, 1883
- Trenton: Cadwalader Park
- Great River, New York, Long Island, Suffolk County
- Larchmont: Manor Park
- Mount Pleasant: Kykuit Gardens, Rockefeller family estate, from 1897
- New York City:
- Staten Island:
- Newburgh: Downing Park
- Niagara Falls: Niagara Reservation (now Niagara Falls State Park), dedicated in 1885
- Point Chautauqua: Point Chautauqua Historic District
- Saratoga Springs: Congress Park
- Utica: Frederick T. Proctor Park 
- Watertown: Thompson Park
- Asheville: Biltmore Estate grounds
- Pinehurst: ground broken in 1895
- Dilworth: ground broken in 1890
- American University
- Gallaudet University Olmsted Green
- National Zoological Park
- United States Capitol grounds
Olmsted in popular culture
In Erik Larson's The Devil in the White City, Olmsted is featured as one of the most important figures participating in the design of the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. In the book, his personality and actions are given significant coverage. In addition, his importance in designing the fair is highlighted (e.g., his part in picking the geographic site and his bureaucratic involvement in planning the fair).
- A celebration of the life and work of Frederick Law Olmsted - Biography Page.
- "F. L Olmsted is Dead; End Comes to Great Landscape Architect at Waverly, Mass. Designer of Central and Prospect Parks and Other Famous Garden Spots of American Cities." New York Times. August 29, 1903.
- "Presque Isle Park". michigandnr. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- "Firsts". springfield375.org. Springfield 375. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- Robert Muccigrosso, ed., Research Guide to American Historical Biography (1988) 5:2666-74
- Martin, Justin (2011). Genius of Place: The Life of Frederick Law Olmsted, p. 8. Da Capo Press.
- "Frederick Law Olmsted, landscape architect, 1822-1903 - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Cf. Wilson, p.220. "At the beginning of the Civil War, it was suggested by Olmsted's English publisher that a one-volume abridgment of all three of these books would be of interest to the British public, and Olmsted, then busy with Central Park, arranged to have this condensation made by an anti-slavery writer from North Carolina. Olmsted himself contributed to it a new introduction on The Present Crisis."
- Olmsted, Frederick Law, "The Cotton Kingdom: A Traveller's Observations on Cotton and Slavery in the American Slave States. Based Upon Three Former Volumes of Journeys and Investigations", Mason Brothers, 1862
- Lancaster, Clay (1972). Handbook of Prospect Park. Long Island University Press. pp. 51–66. ISBN 0-913252-06-9.
- 1912 Register of the Massachusetts Commandery of MOLLUS
- Yearbook of the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution 1897, 1898 & 1899, pg. 587
- Carla Yanni, The Architecture of Madness: Insane Asylums in the United States, University of Minnesota Press, 2007., 127-139
- Albert Fein, Frederick Law Olmsted and the American Environmental Tradition’’ (1972)
- Larson, The Devil in the White City
- Walter Rogers; Michaal Dollin (2010). The Professional Practice of Landscape Architecture: A Complete Guide to Starting and Running Your Own Firm. John Wiley & Sons. p. 19.
- Rosenzweig, Roy and Elizabeth Blackmar (1992). The Park and the People: : A History Of Central Park. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 133. ISBN 9780801497513.
- Beechcroft and Lakehurst Gardens National Historic Site
- White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot; Chapter, American Institute of Architects. New York (2000). AIA guide to New York City. Crown Publ.
- Wickes, Majorie; Tim O'Connell (April 1988). "The Legacy of Frederick Law Olmsted". Rochester History (Rochester Public Library) L (2). ISSN 0035-7413. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
- Lake Park Friends
- Montebello Park. City of St. Catharines. Accessed May 16, 2010.
- Official website, Fall River, Massachusetts
- "The Olmsteds in the Pacific Northwest".
- Presque Isle Park. Michigan. Accessed May 16, 2010.
- Historic Thompson Park. Watertown, New York.
- "MacPháidín Library Web Catalog". 0-search.proquest.com.library.stonehill.edu. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Charlotte Evening Chronicle, July 1, 1911. It was the accidental discovery of this article by Dr. Dan L. Morrill that led to the recent rediscovery of the Olmsteds' role in the creation of Dilworth. See http://www.cmhpf.org/educationpersonalitiesolmsted.htm.
- Beveridge, Charles E; Paul Rocheleau (October 1998). Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing the American Landscape. New York, New York: Universe Publishing. ISBN 0-7893-0228-4.
- Guide to Biltmore Estates. Asheville, North Carolina: The Biltmore Company. 2003.
- Hall, Lee (1995). Olmsted's America: An "Unpractical" Man and His Vision of Civilization. Boston, MA: Bullfinch Press. ISBN 0-8212-1998-7.
- Olmsted, Frederick Law (1856). A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States; With Remarks on Their Economy. ISBN 0-8371-0601-X.
- Roper, Laura Wood. FLO, a biography of Frederick Law Olmsted (1973) online edition
- Rybczynski, Witold (June 1999). A Clearing in the Distance: Frederick Law Olmsted and North America in the Nineteenth Century. New York, New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-82463-9.
- Sears, Stephen W., To the Gates of Richmond: the Peninsula Campaign (1992) Ticknor and Fields, New York, NY ISBN 0-89919-790-6
- Wilson, Edmund, Patriotic gore; studies in the literature of the American Civil War, New York, Oxford University Press, 1962. Cf. Chapter VI on Northerners in the South: Frederick L. Olmsted.
- (2010): "Frederick Law Olmsted: Essential Texts", edited by Robert Twombly, WW Norton & Company, New York.
- Muccigrosso, Robert ed., Research Guide to American Historical Biography (1988) 5:2666-74</ref>
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Frederick Law Olmsted at the Open Directory Project
- The National Association for Olmsted Parks
- The Olmsted Plan KCET Departures Olmsted Plan
- Olmsted and America's Urban Parks, 2010 documentary; supplemental materials at OlmstedFilm.org
- Booknotes interview with Witold Rybczynski on Clearing, October 17, 1999.