Ford Pinto engine
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Predecessor||None (North America)
Essex V4/Taunus V4 engine
The Ford Pinto engine was the unofficial but generic nickname for a 4-cylinder internal combustion engine built by Ford Europe. In Ford sales literature it was referred to as the EAO or OHC engine and because it was designed to the metric system, it was sometimes called the "Metric engine". The internal Ford codename for the unit was the T88-series engine. European Ford service literature refer to it as the Taunus In-Line engine (hence the TL codenames) and the Lima In-Line (LL)
It was used in many European Ford cars and was exported to the United States to be used in the Ford Pinto, a successful Subcompact car of the 1970s, hence the name which is used most often for the unit. In Britain, it is commonly used in many kit cars and hot rods, especially in the 2 litre size.
Pinto OHC (TL)
In Europe, the Pinto OHC was introduced in 1970 to replace the Essex V4 in the Mk3 Ford Cortina and Taunus V4 for the German Fords range (mainly the new Taunus TC). It was the first Ford engine to feature a belt-driven overhead camshaft (thus the name).
- Ford Taunus
- Ford Escort Mk1 RS2000
- Ford Escort Mk2 RS2000, Mexico
- Ford Cortina
- Ford Capri
- Ford Sierra
- Ford Granada
- Ford Scorpio
- Ford Transit van
- TVR Tasmin 200
The Pinto engine was available in five displacements: 1.3 L (1,294 cc), earlier 1.6 L (1,593 cc), later 1.6 L (1,598 cc), 1.8 L (1,796 cc) and the 2.0 L (1,993 cc). Due to emission requirements it was phased out towards the end of the 1980s to be replaced by the CVH engine and DOHC engine, the latter being (contrary to popular belief) a completely new design and not a twin-cam development of the Pinto unit. The 16-valve version of the Ford DOHC unit is still used on the Ford Transit. The only DOHC direct derivative of Pinto engine is Cosworth YB 16-valve engine, powering Ford Sierra and Ford Escort RS Cosworth variants.
The smallest member of the family was the 1.3 L (1,294 cc) which had a 79.0 mm (3.11 in) bore and 66.0 mm (2.60 in) stroke. It was produced in two compression ratio versions:
- TL13L – the low compression (LC) variant, which developed 40–43 kW (54–58 hp) / 90–92 N·m (66–68 ft·lbf) depending on carburetor model. Had a compression ratio of 8.0:1 and the engine codes started with 'JA'
- TL13H — the high compression (HC) variant, which developed 43–46 kW (58–62 hp) / 97–98 N·m (72–72 ft·lbf) depending on carburetor model. Had a compression ratio of 9.0:1 and the engine codes started with 'JC'
- 1970–1982 Ford Taunus (engine codes JAA/JCA, JAC/JCC, JAR/JCR)
- 1972–1974 Ford Capri (engine code JCE)
- 1982–1984 Ford Sierra (engine code JCT)
Early low compression variant (TL16L)
Initially the 1.6 L (1,593 cc) had a bore of 87.6 mm (3.45 in) and shared the crankshaft with the 1.3 L model with a stroke of 66.0 mm (2.60 in) giving the displacement of 1593 cc. The TL16L had a compression ratio of 8.2:1 and developed 48–51 kW (64–68 hp) of power and 111–113 N·m (82–83 ft·lbf) of torque depending on the carburettor and application. As the 1.3 L model it used the Motorcraft 1V and, later, the Motorcraft VV carburetors. The engine code of the low compression variant started with 'LA'.
- 1970–1982 Ford Taunus / Ford Cortina (engine codes LAA, LAD, LAR)
- 1979–1986 Ford Transit (engine code LAT)
- 1975–1985 Ford Capri (engine codes LAC, LAN)
Early high compression variant (TL16H)
The HC version of the early 1.6 L had the same bore and stroke as the LC version but the compression ratio was higher (9.2:1) allowing it to produce 53 kW (71 hp) of power and 118 N·m (87 ft·lbf) of torque. It used the same carburetor models as the low compression version (Motorcraft 1V and Motorcraft VV).
- 1970–1982 Ford Taunus / Ford Cortina (engine codes LCA, LCJ, LCR)
- 1982–1984 Ford Sierra (engine codes LCT, LCS)
- 1975–1985 Ford Capri (engine codes LCE, LCN)
- 1981–1985 Ford Granada (engine code LCK)
- 1983–1984 Anadol A8-16 SL
Increased performance (GT) variant (TL16G)
From the beginning of the production run, the 1.6 L had a special, 'sporty' version which featured:
- modified cylinder head (larger inlet valves and 2.0 L camshaft with higher valve lifts)
- Weber DGAV 32/36 carburetor
- tubular exhaust manifold
With such an improvement package the engine produced 66 kW (89 hp) of power and 125 N·m (92 ft·lbf) of torque.
- 1970–1973 Ford Taunus GT (engine code LEA)
- 1970–1976 Ford Taunus GXL (engine code LEA)
- 1970–1976 Ford Cortina GXL (engine code LEA)
- 1976–1982 Ford Taunus / Ford Cortina S / GLS / Ghia S (engine codes LEC, LEE)
- 1975–1978 Ford Escort Mexico
- 1972–1976 Ford Capri GT (engine codes LEC, LEE)
Late variant (TL16E)
At the beginning of 1984 Ford Pinto engine displacement range switched from 1.3/1.6/2.0 to 1.6/1.8/2.0. The newly introduced 1.8 L engine used the 2.0 L crankshaft, so in order to uniform engine parts for the whole range after dropping the 1.3 L — the 1.6 L was redesigned to also take the 2.0 L crankshaft which had a 76.2 mm (3.00 in) stroke. This of course led to bringing the bore down to 81.0 mm (3.19 in) in order to keep the displacement within range — it was now 1598 cc. The TL16E became now the only available 1.6 L engine of the Pinto range. Although the compression ratio was raised to 9.5:1, the power figures didn't differ much from the earlier TL16H version — the engine developed 56 kW (75 hp) of power and 123 N·m (91 ft·lbf) of torque. This engine is sometimes referred to as 1.6 E-Max engine.
- 1984–1989 Ford Sierra (engine codes LSE, LSD)
The 1.8 L (1,796 cc) Pinto engine was introduced in 1984 as a replacement for the "old" 1.6 L. The engine had an 86.1 mm (3.39 in) bore and 77.0 mm (3.03 in) stroke giving the displacement of 1796 cc. Output was 66 kW (89 hp) of power and 140 N·m (100 ft·lbf). Fuel was supplied by the Pierburg 2E3 28/32 carburetor.
The 2.0 L (1,993 cc) was used in many Ford vehicles from the early 1970s. Due to its robustness and high tuning potential it's often used as an aftermarket engine upgrade or base for building race&rally engines — not exclusively in Ford cars. The engine has bore of 90.7 mm (3.57 in) and 76.2 mm (3.00 in) stroke giving the displacement of 1993 cc. It was manufactured in several variants:
Low compression variant (TL20L)
There were actually three completely different LC variants of the 2.0 L. One was used on the 1970–1982 Ford Taunus export version to Sweden — fitted with the Weber DGAV 32/32 carburetor and compression ratio lowered to 8.2:1 in order to meet the rigorous emission specifications it delivered 64 kW (86 hp) of power and 140 N·m (100 ft·lbf) of torque. The second one was used on 1978–1991 Ford Transits and P100 models. With modified induction and Motorcraft 1V carburetor it produced 57 kW (76 hp) of power and 147 N·m (108 ft·lbf) of torque available at only 2800 rpm. The compression ratio in this case was also 8.2:1. The Transits also used the third variant called the "Economy" engine. The power figure of this one was even lower — it developed only 43 kW (58 hp).
- 1970–1982 Ford Taunus Sweden export version (engine code NA)
- 1978–1994 Ford Transit (engine codes NAT, NAV, NAW, NAX, NBA)
- 1988–1993 Ford P100 (engine code NAE)
- 1977–1986 Ford Transit "Economy" version (engine code NUT)
Standard (high compression) variant (TL20H)
Although Ford marked its standard 2.0 L engine as a HC it actually uses engine codes meant for the 'increased performance variant' engines (coding starting with 'NE'). This engine different carburetor models across the years:
- Weber DGAV 32/36 - on all cars up to 1987
- Weber DFTH 30/34 - from 1987 until the end of production run (1989)
- Weber DFAV 32/36 - on engines exported to USA
The engine produced 74 kW (99 hp) of power and 156 N·m (115 ft·lbf) of torque, though there were a couple of models with a higher output (for example a 81 kW (109 hp) version used in 1976 Ford Escort RS2000).
- 1973–1980 Ford Escort RS2000 (engine codes NEA, NE)
- 1974–1982 Ford Taunus / Ford Cortina (engine codes NEG, NER)
- 1975–1985 Ford Capri (engine codes NEE, NEN)
- 1973–1984 Ford Granada (engine codes NEB, NEH, NEK)
- 1983–1989 Ford Sierra (engine codes NES, NET, NEJ, NE5)
- 1985–1989 Ford Granada and Ford Scorpio (engine code NEL, NER, NE4)
- 1971–1974 Ford Pinto
Injection variant (TL20EFI)
The injected 2.0 L used Bosch L-Jetronic injection system which allowed to rise the output to 85 kW (114 hp) of power and 118 N·m (87 ft·lbf) of torque.
- 1985–1992 Ford Sierra (engine codes NRB, N4A, N4B, N4I)
- 1989–1992 Ford Granada and Ford Scorpio (engine code NRA, NRC, NRI)
- 1991–1994 Ford Transit (engine code NCA)
Single point injection variant (TL20CFI)
This variant was used in Ford Transit exclusively. The power output was 57 kW (75 PS).
- 1985–1992 Ford Transit (engine code N6T)
Cosworth YB (CH20EFI)
In the beginning of 1980's Ford ordered Cosworth developing a performance engine for use in Ford Sierra RS Cosworth. The company decided to base it on the Pinto 2.0, and although the new engine — the Cosworth YB - had not much in common with the design that it originated from, the Pinto can be still recognized as its predecessor.
Lima OHC (LL)
The Ford Pinto used the OHC version, a 2.3 L (2302 cc) unit introduced in 1974 which has a 96.0 mm (3.78 in) bore and 79.5 mm (3.13 in) stroke. This version lasted until 1997 in various guises. The earliest units produced 66 kW (88 hp) and 160 N·m (118 lb·ft). This engine has also been known as the Lima engine, after the Lima Engine plant in Lima, Ohio, where it was first manufactured (it was also later manufactured in Brazil).
In 1979-80, a draw-through, non-intercooled turbo version was produced for Mustang Cobras and some Capris. Lack of dealership and owner training resulted in many stuck turbochargers and other maintenance problems. They were limited to 5 PSI of boost though Ford Motorsport sold a wastegate with an adjustable rod which allowed an increase of up to 9 PSI. It was used in this carbureted form in a number of passenger cars, from the Fairmont Futura Turbo to the 1979 Indy Pace Car edition Mustang.
In the 1980s, a turbocharged and intercooled version was used in the Ford Thunderbird Turbo Coupe. This was made practical by the introduction of Ford's EECIV port fuel injection system; 1983's 2.3 Liter Turbo was the first production implementation of that advance in technology, which paved the way for across the board use in many Ford passenger car; however, the turbo version never made it into any Ford trucks. Output for this turbo/intercooled version was 142 kW (190 hp) and 325 N·m (240 lb·ft) for the 1987-88 models with the (T-5) 5-speed manual transmission.
The turbocharged and intercooled 2.3 was also used in the 1984-86 Mustang SVO, while the 1983–1984 Mustang TurboGT, 1985-89 Merkur XR4Ti, 1983–1986 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe and 1984–1986 Mercury Cougar XR7 all skipped the intercooler on their turbo versions, which dropped output to 155 hp (116 kW) and 205 ft·lbf (278 N·m) of torque. The SVO Mustang's output increased in 1985½ to 205 HP.
A dual-spark version (with two spark plugs per cylinder and distributor-less ignition) was introduced in the 1989 Ford Ranger and 1991 Ford Mustang. This version produced 78 kW (105 hp) and 183 N·m (135 lb·ft).
- Naturally Aspirated
- Ford Aerostar
- Ford Courier
- Ford Pinto
- Ford Ranger/Mazda B-Series (North America)
- Ford Mustang
- 1975–1979 Ford Maverick Brazilian models
- Ford Jeep CJ-5 Brazilian models
- Ford Rural, F-75 pick up Brazilian models
- Ford Taunus Argentina models
- Ford Sierra Argentina models
- Ford Falcon (Argentina)
- Ford Fairmont
- Mercury Bobcat
- Mercury Capri
- Ford Mustang II
- Mercury Zephyr
- 1983–1986 Ford LTD (Optional)
- 1979–1980 Ford Mustang, Mercury Capri (carbureted)
- 1980 Ford Fairmont, Mercury Zephyr (carbureted)
- 1985–1989 Merkur XR4Ti
- 1983–1986 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe
- 1984–1986 Mercury Cougar XR7
- 1983–1984 Mustang TurboGT (W Code)
- 1983–1984 Capri Turbo RS
- used as a conversion engine on VW based cars like Sandrail and Baja Bug
A stroked (by 7 mm) version of the 2.3 OHC Ford Ranger engine appeared in 1998. It also used higher-flow cylinder heads for better intake and combustion. Output was 89 kW (119 hp) and 202 N·m (149 lb·ft). It was replaced in 2001 by the Mazda-derived Duratec 23, but Ford Power Products continues to sell this engine as the LRG-425.
A 16-valve DOHC variant of the Pinto engine was not developed before 1984. Instead Michael Costin and Keith Duckworth of Cosworth Engineering introduced the 16-valve DOHC unit based on Ford earlier Kent X-flow engine. Although only 1.6 and 1.8 versions of the so-called Cosworth BDA (Belt Driven A-type) were put into volume production, the rally Escorts were homologated within the 2000 cc class. This allowed further boring and stroking to gain several more HP for the 2-litre works cars.
The 1.6 L (1601 cc) DOHC engine used an 81.0 mm (3.19 in) bore and 77.62 mm (3.06 in) stroke. It produced 88 kW (120 hp) and 152 N·m (112 lb·ft).
The 1.8 L (1845 cc) DOHC engine used an 86.8 mm (3.42 in) bore and 77.62 mm (3.06 in) stroke. It produced 86 kW (115 hp) and 163 N·m (120 lb·ft).
- 1971 Ford Escort RS1600
- 1975 Ford Escort RS1800
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