In Greek mythology, Eteocles (Ancient Greek: Ἐτεοκλῆς) was a king of Thebes, the son of Oedipus and either Jocasta or Euryganeia. The name is from earlier *Etewoklewes (ἘτεϜοκλέϜες), meaning "truly glorious". Tawagalawas is thought to be the Hittite rendition of the name. Oedipus killed his father Laius and married his mother without knowing his relationship to either. When the relationship was revealed, he was expelled from Thebes. The rule passed to his sons Eteocles and Polynices. However, because of a curse from their father, the two brothers did not share the rule peacefully. Eteocles was succeeded by his uncle, Creon.
In the Thebaid, the brothers were cursed by their father for their disrespect towards him on two occasions. The first of these occurred when they served him using the silver table of Cadmus and a golden cup, which he had forbidden. The brothers then sent him the haunch of a sacrificed animal, rather than the shoulder, which he deserved. Enraged, Oedipus prayed to Zeus that the brothers would die by each other's hands. However, in Sophocles's Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus desired to stay in Thebes but was expelled by Creon. His sons argued over the throne, but Eteocles gained the support of the Thebans and expelled Polynices, who went to Oedipus to ask for his blessing to retake the city, but instead was cursed to die by his brother's hand.
Quarrel over the rule of Thebes
There are several accounts of how Eteocles and Polynices shared the rule after Oedipus's departure from the city. In Hellanicus's account, Eteocles offers his brother his choice of either the rule of the city or a share of the property. In Pherecydes, however, Eteocles expels Polynices by force, and keeps the rule of Thebes and the inheritance. The Bibliotheca and Diodorus state that the brothers agree to divide the kingship between them, switching each year. Eteocles, however, was allotted the first year, and refused to surrender the crown.
In all of these versions, Polynices gathered the support of the Argives and attacked Thebes. This battle is the subject of Aeschylus' tragedy Seven Against Thebes. Although Eteocles's forces were victorious, the brothers killed each other.
- Hoffner, p. 297.
- Gantz, p. 502.
- Gantz, p. 503.
- Sophocles. Oedipus at Colonus, lines 1350-1395.
- Pseudo-Apollodorus. The Library, 3.6.1.
- Gantz, Timothy. Early Greek Myth. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
- Hoffner, Beckman. Letters from the Hittite Kingdom. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009.
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