|Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod|
Dorothy Garrod, c. 1913, while at Newnham College, Cambridge
|Born||5 May 1892
|Died||18 December 1968|
Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod CBE, FBA (5 May 1892–18 December 1968) was a British archaeologist who was the first woman to hold an Oxbridge chair, partly through her pioneering work on the Palaeolithic period. Her father was Sir Archibald Garrod, the physician.
Garrod was raised at her family home in Merton. In 1913, she entered Newnham College, Cambridge, and read for a Diploma in Anthropology at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, where she was taught by Robert Ranulph Marett.
It was Garrod who discovered the important neanderthal skull now called Gibraltar 2 in the early 1920s. She had come to Gibraltar to investigate at Abbe Breuil's encouragement. He had discovered the Devil's Tower Cave in Gibraltar with William Willoughby Cole Verner.
Following this, she held excavations at Mount Carmel in Palestine where, working closely with Dorothea Bate, she demonstrated a long sequence of Lower Palaeolithic, Middle Palaeolithic and Epipalaeolithic occupations in the caves of Tabun, El Wad, Es Skhul, Shuqba (Shuqbah) and Kebara Cave. Her work was a major contribution to the understanding of the prehistoric sequence in the region. She also coined the cultural label for the late Epipalaeolithic Natufian culture (from Wadi an-Natuf, the location of the Shuqba cave) following her excavations at Es Skhul and El Wad. The chronological framework established by her excavations in the Levant remain crucial to the present understanding of the prehistoric evolution in the region. Her excavations at the cave sites in the Levant were conducted with almost exclusively women workers recruited from local villages, although she worked with fellow archaeologist Francis Turville-Petre at Kebara Cave, the type-site for the Kebaran culture.
After holding a number of other academic posts she was made Disney Professor of Archaeology at Cambridge in 1939, a post she held until 1952, aside from a gap towards the end of the Second World War when she served in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force. She was based at the RAF Medmenham photographic interpretation unit as a section officer.
Dorothy Garrod was the first female professor at Cambridge. The first women University Teaching Officers were appointed to Cambridge University in 1921, and in 1926 Cambridge University women first gave women the titles of degrees but without associated privileges (i.e. no participation in University government). It was not until 1947 that full membership for women was granted by Cambridge University.
Awards and recognition
- Bar-Yosef, Ofer (1970–80). "Garrod, Dorothy Annie Elizabeth". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 21. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 103–108. ISBN 0684101149.
- Garrod, D. A. E., Buxton, L. H. D., Elliot-Smith, G., Bate, D.M. A. (1928). "Excavation of a Mousterian rock-shelter at Devil's Tower, Gibraltar". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 58: 33–113. JSTOR 4619528.
- Devils Tower Cave, http://underground-gibraltar.com, accessed 24 February 2013
References and further reading
- Adams, Amanda, (2010). Ladies of the Field: Early Women Archaeologists and Their Search for Adventure, Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 978-1-55365-433-9
- Davies, William and Ruth Charles (eds) (1999) Dorothy Garrod and the Progress of the Palaeolithic: Studies in the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Near East and Europe Oxford: Oxbow Books.
- Smith, Pamela Jane. (2000) "Dorothy Garrod as the First Woman Professor at Cambridge University" Antiquity 74(283), 131-6.
- Smith, Pamela Jane. (2005) "From 'small, dark and alive' to 'cripplingly shy': Dorothy Garrod as the first woman Professor at Cambridge." 
- Smith, Pamela Jane et al. (1997) "Dorothy Garrod in Words and Pictures" Antiquity 71(272), 265-70.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dorothy Garrod|
- The Dorothy Garrod photographic archive at the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford
- Exhibition on Dorothy Garrod at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford
- Dorothy Garrod (1892–1968): Eine Archäologin erobert die Eliteuniversität Cambridge (German)
Sir Ellis Minns
|Disney Professor of Archaeology, Cambridge University
1938 - 1952
Sir Grahame Clark