The road runs north–south between Frenchay Road to the north and Polstead Road to the south. To the west is Hayfield Road and to the east is Woodstock Road. The houses in Chalfont Road have been described as "small large house(s)" as opposed to the "large small house(s)" in the Southmoor Road area to the southwest.
Houses in the road were originally leased between 1890 and 1904 as part of the North Oxford estate of St John's College. The houses were nearly all designed by Harry Wilkinson Moore. The provision of a tram service from the centre of Oxford to St Margaret's Road in 1882 made it possible to expand the building of the estate further north to Chalfont Road and Frenchay Road.
The psychiatrist Anthony Storr (1920–2001), a Fellow of Green College, Oxford, lived in Chalfont Road. The computer scientists and mathematicians Sir Tony Hoare, Dana Scott, and Robin Wilson also lived in Chalfont Road.
- Hinchcliffe, Tanis (1992). North Oxford. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. pp. 79, 85, 123, 177, 221–222. ISBN 0-14-071045-0.
- Snow, Peter (1991). Oxford Observed. London: John Murray. p. 162. ISBN 0-7195-4707-5.
- Symonds, Ann Spokes (1998). The Changing Faces of North Oxford: Book Two. Witney: Robert Boyd Publications. p. 32. ISBN 1-899536-33-7.
- Sherwood, Jennifer; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1974). The Buildings of England: Oxfordshire. Penguin Books. p. 321. ISBN 0-14-071045-0.
- Storr, Anthony (March 1997). "Commentary on 'Spiritual Experience and Psychopathology'". Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 4 (1). pp. 83–85.
- "Chalfont Road". Kelly's Directory of Oxford (68th ed.). Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey: Kelly's Directories. 1976. p. 300.
- Aldiss, Brian W. (1988/2012). Forgotten Life. Volume 2 of The Squire Quartet. New York: Atheneum / E-Reads. p. 123. ISBN 978-1617567551.
- Mendes, Valerie (2012). "Jade". Lost and Found. Acorn Digital Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-1908879059.
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