Black Star Line
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The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, organizer of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). The shipping line was supposed to facilitate the transportation of goods and eventually African Americans throughout the African global economy. It derived its name from the White Star Line, a line whose success Garvey felt he could duplicate, which would become a standard of his Back-to-Africa movement.[clarification needed] It was one among many businesses which the UNIA originated, such as the Universal Printing House, Negro Factories Corporation, and the widely distributed and highly successful Negro World newspaper.
The Black Star Line and its successor, the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company, operated between 1919 and 1922. It stands today as a major symbol for Garvey followers and African Americans in search of a way to get back to their homeland. It is not to be confused with the Black Star Line, the state shipping corporation of Ghana.
The Black Star Line started in Delaware on June 23, 1919. Having a maximum capitalization of $500,000, BSL stocks were sold at UNIA conventions at five dollars each. The company's losses were estimated to be between $630,000 and $1.25 million.[clarification needed]
The Black Star Line surprised all its critics when, only three months after being incorporated, the first of four ships, the SS Yarmouth was purchased with the intention of it being rechristened the SS Frederick Douglass. The Yarmouth was a coal boat during the First World War, and was in poor condition when purchased by the Black Star Line. Once reconditioned, the Yarmouth proceeded to sail for three years between the U.S. and the West Indies as the first Black Star Line ship with an all-black crew and a black captain. Later Joshua Cockburn, the captain of the Yarmouth, was accused of receiving a "kick back from the purchase price".
The SS Yarmouth was not the only ship to be purchased in poor condition and to be completely oversold. Garvey spent another $200,000 for more ships. One, the SS Shadyside, sailed the "cruise to nowhere" on the Hudson River one summer and sank the next fall because of a leak. Another was a steam yacht once owned by Henry Huttleston Rogers. Booker T. Washington had been an honored guest aboard the ship when it was owned by his friend and confidant, Rogers, and was known as the Kanawha. However, Rogers had died in 1909, and the once well-maintained yacht had also served in the first World War. Renamed by the Black Star Line the SS Antonio Maceo, it blew a boiler and killed a man.
Besides oversold, poorly conditioned ships, Black Star Line was beset by corruption of management and infiltration by agents of J. Edgar Hoover's Bureau of Investigation (the forerunner to the Federal Bureau of Investigation), who – according to historian Winston James – sabotaged it by throwing foreign matter into the fuel, damaging the engines. On its first commission, the Yarmouth brought a shipment of whiskey from the U.S. to Cuba (before prohibition) in record time, but because it did not have docking arrangements in Havana, it lost money sitting in the docks while longshoremen had a strike. A cargo-load of coconuts rotted in the hull of a ship on another voyage because Garvey insisted on having the ships make ceremonial stops at politically important ports.
The Black Star Line ceased sailing in February 1922. It is regarded as a considerable accomplishment for African Americans of the time, despite the thievery by employees, engineers who overcharged, and the Bureau of Investigation's acts of infiltration and sabotage.
References in popular music
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Reggae singer Fred Locks, an adherent of the Rastafari faith, re-introduced the Black Star Line to a Jamaican audience with his 1976 hit "Black Star Liners" (which has been called one of "the most important songs in reggae music of the 1970s"), portraying Garvey as a Moses-like prophet:Seven miles of Black Star Liners coming in the harbour / [...] I can hear the elders saying / These are the days for which we've been praying / ... [Marcus Garvey] told us that the Black Star Liners are coming one day for us.
The Black Star Line was also commemorated by blues singers such as Hazel Meyers and Rosa Henderson; by the musical group Brand Nubian (on their 1993 album In God We Trust); and by Ranking Dread with "Black Starlina" on his Kunta Kinte Roots album. In addition, the title for the 1998 album Black Star, by the American mcees Mos Def and Talib Kweli, was a reference to The Black Star Line.
- Black Star Line, American Experience | Marcus Garvey | People & Events.
- American Experience | Marcus Garvey | People & Events
- Reggae Head
- Interview with Fred Locks
- Springer, Robert (2006). Nobody Knows Where the Blues Come from: Lyrics and History (1st ed.). Jackson, Mississippi: The University Press of Mississippi. p. 198. ISBN 1-57806-797-9.