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Zumurrud Khatun Mosque and Mausoleum

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The Zumurrud Khatun Mosque and Mausoleum (Arabic: جامع زمرد خاتون‎, romanizedMasjid al-Haza'ir), also known as the Mosque al Khaffafin, is a historic mosque and shrine locatedcin Baghdad, Iraq. It dates back to the Abbasid era. It is located in Sheikh Maarouf Cemetery in the Karkh side of Baghdad. The site was built by Sitt Zubayda also known as Zumurrud Khatun in 1202, who was mother of the 34th Abbasid Caliph Al-Nasir, and wife of the 33rd Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustadi. She collected the waqf money from madrasas and built her mausoleum before her death, which is located in Karkh.[1][2]

Zumurrud Khatun Mosque
Mosque al Khaffafin
Arabic: جامع زمرد خاتون‎, romanizedMasjid al-Haza'ir
Zubaida tomb.JPG
Zumurrud Khatun Mosque
Ecclesiastical or organisational statusMosque and shrine
Zumurrud Khatun Mosque and Mausoleum is located in Baghdad
Zumurrud Khatun Mosque and Mausoleum
Location in Baghdad, Iraq
Geographic coordinates33°19′30″N 44°25′19″E / 33.32500°N 44.42194°E / 33.32500; 44.42194Coordinates: 33°19′30″N 44°25′19″E / 33.32500°N 44.42194°E / 33.32500; 44.42194
FounderSitt Zubayda
Date established1202 CE

The building is covered by the distinct nine layered muqarnas dome capped by a small cupola.[2] The minaret of the mosque is considered built during the time of Seljuq dynasty in 12th century, and it is considered the oldest surviving minaret in Baghdad.[1] The building has robust construction made of bricks and plaster. There is also an attached library, and an adjoined Shafi'i madrasa. Due to the mosque was dominated by Hanafi maddhab, the extension to the north for Shafi'i maddhab was added which is called Shafi'i Mosque.[1]

The mosque is one of two historic mausoleums in Karkh, the other is the Sheikh Maruf Mosque.


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Jawad, Aymen. ZUMURRUD KHATUN. Iraq Heritage. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  2. ^ a b US Department of Defense. "023. Baghdad - Zumurrud Khatun Mosque and Tomb". Cultural Property Training Resource. Colorado State University. Retrieved January 4, 2018.