Zubayr ibn al-Awam

Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (Arabic: الزبير بن العوام بن خويلد‎; 594–656) was a cousin and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and one of the first converts to Islam.[1] He was also one of the ten companions whom Muhammad promised paradise. He became one of the political and military leaders of the community following the death of Muhammad. Az-Zubayr died in the Battle of the Camel.[1]

Zubayr ibn al-Awam
تخطيط اسم الزبير بن العوام.png
Arabic calligraphy of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam's name
Born594
Mecca, Arabia
Died656 (aged 61–62)
Basra, Rashidun Caliphate
AllegianceRashidun Caliphate.
Service/branchRashidun army
Years of service636, 640–642
RankCommander
Commands heldRashidun conquest of Egypt, First Muslim civil War 
Battles/wars

BiographyEdit

Al-Zubayr was born in Mecca in 594.[2]: 75 . His father was Al-Awam ibn Khuwaylid of the Asad clan of the Quraysh tribe, making Al-Zubayr a nephew of Khadijah. His mother was Muhammad's aunt, Safiyyah bint ‘Abd al-Muttalib, hence Al-Zubayr was Muhammad's first cousin.[2]: 75  He had two brothers, Sa'ib and Abdul Kaaba; a maternal brother, Safi ibn Al-Harith, who was from the Umayya clan;[3]: 29  and several paternal siblings, including Hind bint Al-Awwam, a wife of Zayd ibn Haritha.[2]: 32 

While he was still a boy, Al-Zubayr fought an adult man and beat him up so fiercely that the man's hand was broken. Safiyyah, who was pregnant at the time, had to carry the man home. When the passers-by asked what had happened, she told them, "He fought Al-Zubayr. Did you find Al-Zubayr soft like cheese or dates or full of brass?" That's when they knew that he would grow up to be strong during war.[2]: 765 

Al-Awam died while Al-Zubayr was still young. His mother used to beat him severely. When it was said to her, "You have killed him! You have wrenched his heart. Will you destroy the boy?" she replied, "I beat him so that he will be intelligent and will be bold in the battle."[2]: 76 

Conversion to IslamEdit

Al-Zubayr was one of the first five men to accept Islam under the influence of Abu Bakr,[4]: 115  and is said to have been the fourth or fifth adult male convert.[2]: 76 

He was one of the first fifteen emigrants to Abyssinia in 615,[4]: 146  and he returned there in 616.[4]: 147  While he was in Abyssinia, a rebellion against the Negus (King) broke out. The Negus met the rebels on the banks of the Nile. The Muslims, greatly worried about losing their protector, delegated Al-Zubayr to be their news-bearer. Helped by an inflated waterskin, he swam down the Nile until he reached the point where the battle was being fought. He watched until the Negus had defeated the rebels, then swam back to the Muslims. He ran up waving his clothes and announced, "Allahu Akbar" and The Muslims rejoiced.[4]: 153 

Al-Zubayr was among those who returned to Mecca in 619 because they heard that the Meccans had converted to Islam. "But when they got near to Mecca, they learned that the report was false so that they entered the town under the protection of a citizen or by stealth."[4]: 167–168  However, Al-Zubayr did not name his protector.

Al-Zubayr joined the general emigration to Medina in 622. At first he lodged with Al-Mundhir ibn Muhammad. It is disputed who became Al-Zubayr's "brother" in Islam: variant traditions name Abdullah ibn Masood, Talha ibn Ubaydullah, Kaab ibn Malik and Salama ibn Salama.[2]: 76–77 [4]: 234 .

Military activity under MuhammadEdit

It is said that Al-Zubayr joined all of Muhammad's military expeditions,[2]: 76  typically dressed in a distinctive yellow turban.[2]: 77 

At the Battle of Badr he was sent as a scout and he captured a Meccan spy.[4]: 295  He fought in the battle and meet Quraish champion named Ubayda ibn Sa'id of the Umayya clan, who nicknamed Abu Dhatu'l Karish. Zubair found Ubayda were clad in armor that fully covered his entire body, leaving only his eyes are visible. Zubayr then pierced his spear through eyes of Ubayda and instantly killing him. Then Zubair stepped on his dead body and pulling his spear from Ubayda head with great force, until his spear are bended [5]

At the Battle of Uhud he volunteered to take up Muhammad's sword "with its right," which was to "smite the enemy with it until it bends," and was "much mortified" when Muhammad rejected his offer.[4]: 373  He was standing so close to the fleeing Meccan women that he could see Hind bint Utbah's anklets.[4]: 379  But it was at that point that the battle turned; Al-Zubayr was one of the handfuls of men who stood beside Muhammad when the Muslims in their turn fled and who accompanied him to the glen. "He was firm with him in the Battle of Uhud and he gave him allegiance to the death."[2]: 78 [4]: 381 

During the Battle of the Trench. According to the record of Ibn Hisham, during the siege, Zubayr engaged in duel against Nawfal ibn Abdullah ibn Mughirah al Makhzumi. Zubayr defeated Nawfal by cleaving his body onto 2 parts with powerful stroke with his sword.[6] However, the other chroniclers such as Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani recorded the men which killed by Zubayr was named Uthman ibn Mughirah al Makhzumi.[7]. regardless the version, it is said by Dhahabi in his Siyar A’lamin Nubala that the vertical blow of Zubayr are so powerful that not only split Ibn Mughirah body perfectly along with his armor, but its also cleaved the horse saddle which Ibn Mughirah sat. the spectators from Muslim defenders cheered and praised the sharpness of the sword which Zubayr used, only to be replied by the latter that it is not his sword which need to be complimented, but it is the strength of his arm which held the sword[8]. During this conflict, Al-Zubayr rode a roan horse when he volunteered to spying on Qurayza tribe regarding their activity to Muhammad. The latter then praised Zubair as he accomplished his mission, "Every Prophet has a disciple, and my disciple is Al-Zubayr."[2]: 79 


In 628 Al-Zubayr joined the expedition to Khaybar and answered Yasir the Jew's challenge to single combat. His mother Safiya asked Muhammad, "Will he kill my son?" and Muhammad reassured her, "No, your son will kill him, Allah willing." Al-Zubayr advanced reciting:

"Khaybar, know that I am Zabbar,
chief of a people no cowardly runaways,
the son of those who defends their glory,
the son of princes.
O Yasir let not all the unbelievers deceive you,
for all of them are like a slowly moving mirage."

They fought, and Al-Zubayr killed Yasir. Afterward, the Muslims commented on how sharp his sword must have been; Al-Zubayr replied that it had not been sharp but he had used it with great force.[4]: 513–514 

After the Muslims had conquered Al-Qamus, the Jewish treasurer, Kinana, was brought to Muhammad, but he refused to reveal where their money was hidden. However, later Muhammad ibn Maslama decapitated Kinana, in retaliation for his brother Mahmud,[4]: 515 [9]: 330–331  who had been killed in the battle a few days earlier.[4]: 511 [9]: 322–324 . Al-Zubayr was later made one of the eighteen chiefs who each supervised the division of a block of booty-shares.[4]: 522 

In December 629, on the eve of the Conquest of Mecca, Muhammad sent Al-Zubayr and Ali to intercept a spy who was carrying a letter to the Quraysh. When they could not find the letter in her baggage, they realised she must have concealed it on her person, so they talked her into it. The spy then produced the letter, which she had hidden in her hair, and Al-Zubayr and Ali brought it back to Muhammad, confident that the Muslims would now take Mecca by surprise.[4]: 545 

When Muhammad entered Mecca, Al-Zubayr held one of the three banners of the Emigrants[2]: 78  and commanded the left wing of the conquering army.[4]: 549  He also fought at the Battle of Hunayn.[4]: 670 

Career after MuhammadEdit

In the third week of July 632, during the early phase of the rebellions which break the Caliph Abu Bakr scraped together an army mainly from the Banu Hashim to defend the vicinity of Medina while the main forces of Medina was sent out to pacify the northern border between the Caliphate with the Byzantine territory.

Clash outside MedinaEdit

Zubayr played significant role during the suppression of rebellions of the apostates across Arabia.

In the first phase of the rebellion, The concentrations of rebels nearest Medina were located in two areas: Abraq, 72 miles to the north-east, and Dhu Qissa, 24 miles to the east.[10] These concentrations consisted of the tribes of Banu Ghatafan, the Hawazin, and the Tayy. Abu Bakr sent envoys to all the enemy tribes, calling upon them to remain loyal to Islam and continue to pay their Zakat. A week or two after the departure of Usama's army, the rebel tribes surrounded Medina, knowing that there were few fighting forces in the city. Meanwhile, Tulayha, a self-proclaimed prophet, reinforced the rebels at Dhu Qissa.

In the third week of July 632, the apostate army moved from Dhu Qissa to Dhu Hussa, from where they prepared to launch an attack on Medina.[11] Abu Bakr received intelligence of the rebel movements, and immediately prepared for the defense of Medina. As Usama's army was elsewhere, historian Ibn Kathir recorded that Abu Bakr immediately gather of newly organised elite guard unit al-Ḥaras wa-l-shurṭa to guard Medina.[12] Veteran like Ali ibn Abi Talib, Talha ibn Ubaidullah and Zubair ibn al-Awam were appointed as commanders of these units.[11].

The Haras wa l Shurta troops rode their camels to the mountain passes of Medina at night, intercepting the Apostate coalition assault forces, until the enemy retreated to Dhu Qisha.[11][13]

Battle of YamamaEdit

Ibn Hisham has recorded the second hand testimony from his father about the narration from the second son of Zubayr, Urwah ibn Zubayr, who told the narrators of Ibn Hisham chronicle that Zubayr has also involved during the battle of Yamama.[14] Interestingly, Urwah also giving giving testimony that Zubayr has strapped his older brother, Abdullah ibn Zubayr, to his body while he riding a horse during the battle against forces of Musaylima.[14] Zubayr doing such thing so the 10 years old Abdullah can bear witness how Zubayr doing battle.[14]

After Abu BakarEdit

Al-Zubayr was the most successful field commander during the Muslim conquest of Egypt under Caliph Umar.[15] He commanded a regiment in the decisive Battle of Yarmouk in 636,[16]

EgyptEdit

Tabari recorded in long chain of narrators that after conquest of Jerusalem caliph Umar stayed for while in Jerusalem,[17] then sent Zubayr as reinforcements sent to Amr ibn al-As in Egypt by Caliph 'Umar. The Caliph sent a reply with an accompanying army.

I have sent you a reinforcements [sic] of 8.000 warriors. It consist of 4.000 mens [sic], each of 1000 was led by four figures wherein each of these men strength are equal to 1000 mens [sic]'[18]

Those 4 commanders were consisted two veteran Muhajireen, Zubayr Ibn al-Awam and Miqdad ibn al-Aswad; and two Ansari commander named Maslama ibn Mukhallad al-Ansari; and Ubadah ibn al-Samit.[19] However, Baladhuri, Ibn al-Athir and Ibn Sa'd recorded that the four commander were consisted purely Qurayshite consisting Zubayr, Busr ibn Abi Artat, Umayr ibn Wahb, and Kharija ibn Hudhafa.[20][21][22] It is noted by Claude Cahen that this reinforcements army does not included any chieftains or tribes that rebelled during Ridda Wars, which means this army purely consisted of those who proven loyal from the beginning of Caliphate[23]

After death of 'UmarEdit

When Umar was dying in 644, he selected Al-Zubayr and five other men to elect the next Caliph. Up after this, Zubayr officially served as a member of Majlis-ash-Shura, which responsible for elections of Caliph and functioned as governmental advisory council regarding the law.[24]

Battle of the CamelEdit

 
Tomb of Zubayr ibn al-Awam at Basra, Iraq

Uthman was assassinated in 656. Al-Zubayr had reason to hope that he would be elected as the next Caliph, although he knew that his old ally Talha was also a strong contender.[25] But Ali was elected,[26]: 166, 176  to the debate of Muhammad's widow Aisha.[27]: 52  Thereupon Al-Zubayr met with Aisha and Talha in Mecca, claiming he had only given allegiance to Ali at swordpoint.[26][28]

Al-Zubayr, Talha and Aisha called for Uthman's death to be avenged, and while Ali agreed, he said that he was not able to do this at the time.[27]: 18  The allies then collected an army and marched to Basra. In Basrah, however, they defeated the Governor and took over the city,[27]: 69–70, 76 [29] putting to death everyone who had been implicated in the assassination of Uthman.[27]: 73  When they were challenged over why they now cared about Uthman when they had shown him so much hostility during his lifetime, they claimed: "We wanted Uthman to meet our demands. We didn’t want him to be killed."[27]: 69 

Ali certainly behaved like a man who suspected hostility towards himself, for he soon entered Basra with a professional army of twenty thousand.[27]: 121  For several days, there were negotiations, as both sides asserted they wanted only to see justice done.[27]: 122, 129, 130, 132, 152  But on 7 December 656 hostilities erupted. Aisha's warriors killed Ali's messenger-boy, and Ali responded, "Battle is now justified, so fight them!"[27]: 126–127 

The battle started, but according to some traditions at some point Al-Zubayr lost the desire to fight. He said that Ali had talked him out of it during the negotiations on the grounds that they were cousins, but his son accused him of fearing Ali's army. Whatever the case, Al-Zubayr left the battlefield while Aisha continued to direct her troops from her camel. A man named Amr ibn Jurmuz decided to track Al-Zubayr's movements and followed him to a nearby field. It was time for prayer so, after each had asked the other what he was doing there, they agreed to pray. While Al-Zubayr was prostrating, Amr ibn Jurmuz stabbed him in the neck and killed him.[27]: 111–112, 116, 126, 158–159 

Personal characteristicEdit

Zubayr is described as of medium height, lean, dark-complexioned, and hairy, though with a thin beard. His hair hung down to his shoulders, and he did not dye it after it turned white.[2]: 80 

Scholarly viewEdit

In the eyes of Islamic scholars, classified Zubayr as being among the higher-ranked Companions of the Prophet, due to his inclusion as ten Muslims to whom Muhammad guaranteed Paradise while they were still alive[30][31], his attendance in the Battle of Badr, and the Pledge of the Tree.

However, there is very few Hadith narrated from Zubayr as he was reluctant for narrating too much ahadith about Muhammad even though he had been constantly in his company. As he explained to his son Abdullah, "I heard Allah’s Messenger say, ‘Anyone who tells a lie about me should take a seat in the Fire.'"[2]: 80 

Enterpreneurship & inheritancesEdit

Zubair Entrepreneurship has become serious object of study by scholars of Islamic institutions regarding the conduct and ethics in business in accordance of Islamic Fiqh, such as Dr Erwandi Tarmizi[32].

Bukhari narrated in his tradition about Zubair bought a land property in the outskirt of Medina at a price of 170.0000 gold pieces[33]. After his death, his son Abdullah ibn Zubayr sell the property for 1.600.000 dinar[33]. In another case, Muhammad once gave him a large plot of land to build his house and a grant of some palm trees.[2]: 77  In 625 Al-Zubayr was given more palm trees from the land of the expelled Nadir tribe.[2]: 78 .

For his illustrious business career during his life, al-Zubayr was known to be very wealthy as in his will al-Zubayr had left a house for all of his divorced daughters.[2]: 80  He left a third of his property in bequests and instructed his son Abdullah to sell the rest of his property to pay off his debts, invoking Allah if any could not be paid. Abdullah found that the debts amounted to 1,200,000,[2]: 81  presumably in dirhams. Although Abdullah went to some trouble to settle all the debts, Al-Zubayr's four widows eventually inherited 1,100,000 each, leaving over 30,000,000 to be divided among his children.[2]: 81–82 

Zubayr also recorded once owned 1.000 male and 1.000 female Ghilman or slave at one time, which he manumitted at least one each days[34]

FamilyEdit

Al-Zubayr married eight times and had twenty children.[2]: 75 

  1. Asma bint Abi Bakr. They were married before the Hijra of 622 and divorced when Urwa was young, i.e., around 645.[3]: 179 
    1. Abdullah
    2. Al-Mundhir
    3. Asim
    4. Al-Muhajir
    5. Khadija the Elder
    6. Umm Al-Hasan
    7. Aisha
    8. Urwa
  2. Umm Kulthum bint Uqba of the Umayya clan. They were married in 629, but "she disliked him," and they were divorced in a matter of months. After their daughter was born, Umm Kulthum married Abdur Rahman bin Awf.[3]: 163 
    1. Zaynab
  3. Al-Halal bint Qays of the Asad tribe.
    1. Khadija the Younger
  4. Umm Khalid Ama bint Khalid of the Umayya clan. She was one of the emigrants who returned from Abyssinia in 628.[3]: 164 
    1. Khalid
    2. Amr
    3. Habiba
    4. Sawda
    5. Hind
  5. Ar-Rabbab bint Unayf of the Kalb tribe.
    1. Mus'ab
    2. Hamza
    3. Ramla
  6. Atiqa bint Zayd of the Adi clan, a widow of Umar.[2]: 85 
  7. Tumadir bint Al-Asbagh of the Kalb tribe, a widow of Abdur Rahman ibn Awf. Al-Zubayr divorced her only seven days after the wedding. She used to tell other women, "When one of you marries, she should not be deceived by seven days after what Al-Zubayr has done to me."[3]: 208–209  She did not, however, enlarge on the nature of the "deception".
  8. Umm Ja'far Zaynab bint Marthad of the Thaalaba tribe.
    1. Ubayda
    2. Ja'far

Al-Zubayr's wives complained that he had "some harshness towards women".[3]: 163  Umm Kulthum asked him directly for a divorce, and when he refused, she tricked him into it by pestering him while he was busy with the ritual washing for prayer. Al-Zubayr complained, "She tricked me, may Allah trick her!" Muhammad advised him to propose to her again, but Al-Zubayr realized that, "She will never come back to me."[3]: 163  Atiqa only agreed to marry him on condition that he would never beat her.[35]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Adamec, Ludwig W. (2017). Historical dictionary of Islam (Third ed.). Lanham, Maryland. ISBN 978-1-4422-7723-6. OCLC 953919036.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ Zubaidi, Ahmad ibn Ahmad; Hashim, Muhammad Salam; Sharif, Muhammad Mahdi (2002). مختصر صحيح البخاري المسمى التجريد الصريح لاحكام الجامع الصحيح Concise volume of Al Bukhari correct tradition. دار الكتب العلمية،. p. 706. ISBN 9782745135131. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  6. ^ Kathir, Ibn. "al Bidayah wa Nihayah quoting Ibn Hisham". Wikisource of Al Bidayah wa Nihayah. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  7. ^ al Asqalani, Ibn Hajjar. "Fath al Bari". Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  8. ^ Shams ad-Dīn, ad Dhahabi. "Siyar A'lam Nubala". Alukah. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  9. ^ a b Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., and Tayob, A. K. (2011). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford & New York: Routledge.
  10. ^ Frank Griffel (2000). Apostasie und Toleranz im Islam: die Entwicklung zu al-Ġazālīs Urteil gegen die Philosophie und die Reaktionen der Philosophen (in German). BRILL. p. 61. ISBN 978-90-04-11566-8.
  11. ^ a b c Ibn Jarir at-Tabari, Muhammad (June 15, 2015). The History of Al-Tabari Vol. 10 The Conquest of Arabia: The Riddah Wars A.D. 632-633/A.H. 11 (Fred Donner Translation ed.). State University of New York Press. p. 46. ISBN 9781438401409. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  12. ^ Perlman 2015, p. 323.
  13. ^ Khorasani Parizi, Ebrahim. "Ansar's Role in the Suppression of Apostates in the Era of Caliphate of Abu Bakr; Tabari history.Vol.3, p.246, 247" (PDF). textroad publication. Department of History, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Baft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Baft, Iran. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  14. ^ a b c ad Dhahabi, Abu Abdillah Muhammad. "Siyar A'lam Nubala". Islamweb Library. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  15. ^ Futun Misr wa al Maghrib, p. 61; Qa’dat Fath al Sham wa Misr, p. 208-226
  16. ^ Futun Misr wa al Maghrib, p. 61; Qa’dat Fath al Sham wa Misr, p. 208-226
  17. ^ Ibn Jarir at-Tabari, Muhammad; Howard, I.K.A (1989). The Conquest of Iraq, Southwestern Persia, and Egypt (G. H. A. Juynboll translation ed.). State University of New York Press. p. 166. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  18. ^ Saleh, Qasim a Ibrahim dan Muhammad A. (2014). Buku Pintar Sejarah Islam (in Indonesian). Serambi Ilmu Semesta. ISBN 978-602-17919-5-0.
  19. ^ Shams-ad-Din, Ad Dhahabi. "Siyar A'lam Nubala". Wiki project Siyar A'lam Nubala. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  20. ^ "Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma'rifat al-Sahabah 1 THICK VOLUME (أُسْدُ الغَابَة فِي مَعْرِفَةِ الصَّحَابة) by Imam 'Izz al-Din Abi al-Hassan Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari, Looh Press; Islamic & African Studies". www.loohpress.com. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  21. ^ Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri, Ahmad. "The Origins of the Islamic State Being a Translation from the Arabic Accompanied With Annotations, Geographic and Historic Notes of the Kitab Futuh Al-buldan". Retrieved 21 September 2021. line feed character in |title= at position 33 (help)
  22. ^ Ibn Sa'd, Muhammad. "al-Ṭabaqāt al-kabīr". MIT Libraries. MIT. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  23. ^ Shaban, M.A. (October 14, 1976). Islamic History: Volume 1, AD 600-750 (AH 132) A New Interpretation. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  24. ^ Al-Mawardi 2017.
  25. ^ Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk. Translated by Humphreys, R. S. (1990). Vol. 15, The Crisis of the Early Caliphate, pp. 238-239. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  26. ^ a b Jalal ad-Din Abdulrahman Al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa. Translated by Jarrett, H. S. (1881). History of the Caliphs. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l-Muluk. Translated by Brockett, A. (1997). Vol. 16, The Community Divided. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  28. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari 3129 - One-fifth of Booty to the Cause of Allah (Khumus) - كتاب فرض الخمس - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  29. ^ Muir, W. (1924). The Caliphate: its Rise, Decline, and Fall from Original Sources, 2nd Ed., pp. 243-244. Edinburgh: John Grant.
  30. ^ Abu Dawud 40:4632.
  31. ^ Tirmidhi #3747
  32. ^ Tarmizi 2017, p. 242.
  33. ^ a b Tarmizi 2017, p. 95.
  34. ^ Pipes, Daniel (1981). Slave Soldiers and Islam The Genesis of a Military System; al Maqrizi; Mawaiz. Yale University Press. p. 141. ISBN 9780300024470. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  35. ^ Ibn Hajar, Al-Isaba vol. 4 p. 687, cited in Abbott, N. (1942, 1985). Aishah - the Beloved of Mohammed, p. 88. London: Al-Saqi Books.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit