3M22 Zircon

  (Redirected from Zircon (missile))

The 3M22 Zircon[12] also spelled as 3M22 Tsirkon (Russian: Циркон, NATO reporting name: SS-N-33)[13] is a scramjet powered maneuvering anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile currently in testing by Russia.[14][15][16]

3M-22 Zircon
3M22 Циркон
TypeAnti-ship hypersonic cruise missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Land-attack missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In serviceIn production
Production history
DesignerNPO Mashinostroyeniya
ManufacturerNPO Mashinostroyeniya
Produced2016–present
Specifications
Length8–10 m

Warhead weight300-400 kg[1][2]

EngineScramjet
PropellantLiquid - "Decilin-M" (Russian: Децилин-М)[3]
Operational
range
>1,000 km (540 nmi; 620 mi)[4]
1,000 - 2,000 km depend on the type of target.[5][6][7]
Flight altitude28 km (17 mi)[8]
Maximum speed Mach 8–Mach 9 (6,090–6,851 mph; 9,800–11,025 km/h; 2,722.3–3,062.6 m/s)[9][10]
Launch
platform
Submarine, Surface ship,
Land-based (in development)[11]

HistoryEdit

External video
Russian MoD Zircon coverage
  The first launch of the Zircon hypersonic missile from the Admiral Gorshkov frigate on YouTube
  The second launch of the Zircon hypersonic missile from the frigate Admiral Gorshkov on YouTube

The missile represents a further development of the HELA (Hypersonic Experimental Flying Vehicle) developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya[17] that was on display at the 1995 MAKS air show.[citation needed]

Prototypes were test-launched from a Tu-22M3 bomber in 2012–2013.[citation needed] Launches from a ground-based platform followed in 2015, with first success achieved in 2016.[citation needed] In April 2017, it was reported Zircon had reached a speed of Mach 8 (6,090 mph; 9,800 km/h; 2,722.3 m/s) during a flight test.[9] Zircon was again test-fired on 3 June 2017, almost a year earlier than had been announced by Russian officials.[18] In November 2017, Colonel General Viktor Bondarev stated that the missile was already in service.[19] Another flight test reportedly occurred on 10 December 2018, during which the missile demonstrated that it could attain a speed of Mach 8.[20]

On 20 February 2019, Russian President Vladimir Putin stated the missile is capable of accelerating up to Mach 9 and destroying both sea and land targets within 1,000 km (540 nmi; 620 mi).[10] By the year's end, on 24 December 2019, Putin stated that Zircon's land-based version was in development.[11]

According to the commander in chief of the Russian Navy Nikolai Yevmenov, as of January 2020, Zircon was still in testing phase and despite the overall positive evaluation of the test program, still suffered from the "childhood diseases" (Russian idiom meaning "teething problems"). Modernized frigates are expected to be the first platform to receive the hypersonic missile, and the tests are to be continued in parallel with the Navy's armament with the Kalibr cruise missile. Yevmenov further stated Zircon is expected to enter service "in the coming years".[16][21] In early January 2020, Zircon was first test-launched from the frigate Admiral Gorshkov in the Barents Sea, and successfully hit a ground target in the Northern Urals, exceeding the distance of 500 km.[22]

On 7 October 2020, the Russian Chief of General Staff, Valery Gerasimov, stated a Zircon was launched from Admiral Gorshkov in the White Sea and successfully hit a sea target in the Barents Sea 450 km (280 mi) away, reportedly reaching a speed of "more than Mach 8" and altitude of 28 km (17 mi).[8]

On 26 November 2020, the Russian Defense Ministry announced the successful test of a missile launched from Admiral Gorshkov in the White Sea, hitting a naval target 450 km away in the Barents Sea.[23]

On 11 December 2020, the Russian Defense Ministry announced the successful test of a missile launched from Admiral Gorshkov in the White Sea, hitting a ground target 350 km away in the Arkhangelsk Region.[24]

DesignEdit

Zircon is believed to be a maneuvering, winged hypersonic cruise missile with a lift-generating center body. A booster stage with solid-fuel engines accelerates it to supersonic speeds, after which a scramjet motor with liquid-fuel (Decilin [ru]) (JP-10 Jet fuel) in the second stage accelerates it to hypersonic speeds.[15][25]

The missile's range is estimated to be 135 to 270 nautical miles (155 to 311 mi; 250 to 500 km) at low level, and up to 400 nmi (460 mi; 740 km) in a semi-ballistic trajectory;[26] average range is around 400–450 km (250–280 mi; 220–240 nmi).[27] According to Russian media (2017), the longest possible range is 540 nmi (620 mi; 1,000 km) and for this purpose a new fuel was created.[28][29][30] Some internet tabloid even claim the range of missile can reach 1,000 - 2,000 km, will depend on the type of target.[31]

Zircon can travel at a speed of Mach 8–Mach 9 (6,090–6,851 mph; 9,800–11,025 km/h; 2,722.3–3,062.6 m/s). This has led to concerns that it could penetrate existing naval defense systems.[32] Zircon exchanges information in flight and can be controlled by commands if necessary.[33]

Zircon will be first deployed with the Kirov-class battlecruisers Admiral Nakhimov and Pyotr Velikiy after 2020. The ships will have their P-700 Granit anti-ship missiles replaced with the 3S14 universal VLS cells capable of carrying the Oniks, Kalibr and Zircon anti-ship cruise missiles; each vessel is to be equipped with 72 such missiles.[34] After completion of their refit, the ships could carry 40–80 anti-ship cruise missiles of different types.[35] Other platforms are likely to include Russian Navy's Admiral Grigorovich class and Admiral Gorshkov class frigates,[36][37] as well as Gremyashchiy class, Buyan class and Karakurt class corvettes, mainly due to the installation of the compatible 3S14 vertical launchers.[citation needed]

ExportEdit

There are certain design similarities between Zirkon and BrahMos-II, which have been noted by experts.[38] Some experts have also postulated that the BrahMos-II might be an export version of the Zirkon missile.[39] A version for export should have its range limited under 300 km in compliance with the MTCR,[26] or up to 400 km.[28]

OperatorsEdit

  Russia

See alsoEdit

  • Kh-47M2 Kinzhal – Russian nuclear-capable air-launched ballistic missile
  • Boeing X-51 Waverider – Unmanned hypersonic experimental aircraft
  • BrahMos-II – Joint Russian-Indian hypersonic cruise missile - in development
  • Kh-22 – Soviet anti-ship missile
  • Kh-90 – Soviet supersonic cruise missile ~1980

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "В России рассказали о работе над гиперзвуковой ракетой "Циркон"" (in Russian). Expert. 30 August 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  2. ^ "Putin Reveals Zircon Mach 9 Missile Specification". Aviation International News. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  3. ^ "Программа создания гиперзвуковых ракет достигла стадии летных испытаний" (in Russian). TASS. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  4. ^ Putin’s new nuclear weapons ‘have no equals’
  5. ^ Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation: tests of the Zircon hypersonic missile have been successfully completed
  6. ^ https://www.gazeta.ru/army/2020/07/26/13166185.shtml
  7. ^ https://iarex.ru/news/64594.html
  8. ^ a b "Russia Says This Is Our First Glimpse Of Its Zircon Hypersonic Cruise Missile". thedrive.com. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Russia's hypersonic Zircon anti-ship missile reaches eight times speed of sound". TASS. 15 April 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Putin Reveals Zircon Mach 9 Missile Specification". Aviation International News. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Работы по МБР "Сармат", гиперзвуковому "Циркону", аппарату "Посейдон" идут по плану - Путин" (in Russian). Interfax. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  12. ^ "Analysis: 3K22 and 3M22 Zircon, the Next Generation Hypersonic Missile of the Russian Navy". Navy Recognition. TASS. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  13. ^ CMANO:WOTY DB
  14. ^ "Russia develops hypersonic 4,600 mph Zircon missile". Fox News. 1 April 2017.
  15. ^ a b "Эксперт рассказал о суперспособности ракеты "Циркон" преодолеть системы ПРО". РЕН ТВ. 15 April 2017.
  16. ^ a b "Гиперзвуковая ракета "Циркон" впервые появится на одном из фрегатов". radiosputnik.ria.ru (in Russian). 21 January 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  17. ^ Ivanov, Yuri (17 April 2017). "Гиперзвуковая ракета "Циркон" ослабит позиции США" (in Russian). ОРУЖИЕ РОССИИ. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  18. ^ Marsden, Harriet (3 June 2017). "New Russian missile 'makes Western defences obselete'". The Independent. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  19. ^ "Бондарев: ВС РФ имеют гиперзвуковые ракеты "Циркон" и ракеты донного базирования "Скиф"". TASS. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  20. ^ "Russia again successfully tests ship-based hypersonic missile — which will likely be ready for combat by 2022". CNBC. 20 December 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  21. ^ "Russian Navy's Top Officer Says Shadowy Zircon Hypersonic Missile Has "Childhood Diseases"". thedrive.com. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  22. ^ "Russia test-launches Tsirkon hypersonic missile from ship for first time". TASS. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  23. ^ "Russia test-launches Tsirkon hypersonic missile". Dailynewsegypt. 26 November 2020.
  24. ^ "Russian Navy frigate test-fires Tsirkon hypersonic missile from White Sea". Tass news agency. 1 January 2021.
  25. ^ "Российские ракеты "Циркон" делают американский "Джеральд Форд" "авианедоносцем".  | Блог Малюта | КОНТ". cont.ws.
  26. ^ a b Russia and India Test Hypersonic and Supersonic Missiles - Ainonline.com, 25 April 2017
  27. ^ Dave Majumdar (2016-04-22). "Russia's Lethal Hypersonic Zirkon Cruise Missile to Enter Production". nationalinterest.org. The National Interest Blog. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  28. ^ a b "Для гиперзвуковых крылатых ракет в России создано принципиально новое топливо". vesti.ru. Вести. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  29. ^ "Российские ракеты "Циркон" делают американский "Джеральд Форд" "авианедоносцем". | Блог Малюта | КОНТ". Cont.ws. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  30. ^ "Ракеты "Циркон" окончательно определили технологическое превосходство России над США". ruspolitica.ru. Русская политика. 2016-10-28. Archived from the original on 2017-06-10. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  31. ^ Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation: tests of the Zircon hypersonic missile have been successfully completed
  32. ^ Mizokami, Kyle (2016-04-26). "Russia's Putting Hypersonic Missiles on Its Battlecruisers". Popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  33. ^ ""Циркон" выходит на рабочую скорость". vz.ru. 2017-04-17. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  34. ^ Виктория Фоменко (2016-05-17). "Опаснее "Калибра": Россия начала испытание гиперзвуковой ракеты "Циркон" - Газета Труд". trud.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  35. ^ "Начались испытания гиперзвуковой ракеты "Циркон"". rg.ru. 2016-03-17. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  36. ^ "Российская ракета "Циркон" достигла восьми скоростей звука". rg.ru. 2017-04-15. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  37. ^ "В России успешно провели испытания новой гиперзвуковой ракеты "Циркон", не имеющей аналогов в мире". 1tv.ru. 2017-05-21. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  38. ^ "Modified Version Of BrahMos Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Successfully Tested; Hits Target With Pinpoint Accuracy". Eurasian Times Desk.
  39. ^ Episkopos, Mark. "Russia's Tsirkon Hypersonic Missile Keeps Inching Closer to Reality". The National Interest. Retrieved 3 February 2021.

External linksEdit