Zhaleika

The zhaleika (Russian: жале́йка), also known as bryolka (брёлка), is the most commonly possessed and used Russian wind instrument,[1] also known as a "folk clarinet" or hornpipe. The zhaleika was eventually incorporated into the balalaika band, the Hungarian tarogato, and may have contributed to the development of the chalumeau, a predecessor of the clarinet.[2]

Zhaleika
Zjalejka.png
Zhaleika
Woodwind instrument
Other namesZhalomeika, sopel’, pishchelka, fletnya, duda, zgaleyka
Classification Single-reed aerophone
Hornbostel–Sachs classification422.211.2
TimbrePiercing and nasal, sad and compassionate
VolumeHigh
AttackFast
DecayFast
Related instruments
Hornpipe, clarinet, pishchiki
Musicians
V.V. Andreyev

Construction and DesignEdit

The zhaleika consists of a single reed that can be covered by a mouthpiece (or "wind cap"). The design consists of a wooden barrel with finger holes and a flared bell that can be made of either natural or man-made materials.[1] It can either consist of a single or double pipe. The single pipe is about 10–20 cm long with a reed made out of either cane or goose feather with an end bell made of cow horn or birch bark with 3–7 finger holes. The double pipe consists of two pipes and one bell, and is found mainly in the southern parts of Russia.[3]

TuningEdit

The zhaleika has diatonic tuning and comes in various keys (G,A,D, sometimes C,E,F). It has a natural or "normal" soprano voice, but can perform in alto or piccolo forms. It is tuned by adjusting the reed and can be turned to the major scale or mixolydian mode with flattened 7th note. Only an octave's worth of notes can be played.[1] Its timbre is described as "piercing and nasal, sad and compassionate".[3]

Origination and UsesEdit

The zhaleika was a shepherd's instrument used to perform solos, duets, or ensemble pieces. The earliest single-reed pipe instruments date back to about 2700 BCE in Egypt, where most of these instruments most commonly had double pipes and used idioglot reeds.[4] The earliest evidence of the zhaleika was in A. Tuchkov's notes dating back to the late 18th century. It was widely spread in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania, but now can only be seen in folk music orchestras. In 1900, V. V. Andreyev incorporated a modified zhaleika - called bryolka - into orchestras. It consisted of a double-reed oboe type with additional finger holes and vents for chromatic scale.[4]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c LaPasha, Robin (2006). "Zhaleika". The Russ Wind Homepage. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  2. ^ Kroll, O (1968). The Clarinet. New York, NY: Taplinger Publishing Company.
  3. ^ a b "Zhaleika". Russia-InfoCentre. 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b Midgley, Ruth (1976). Musical Instruments of the World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Facts on File. ISBN 9780816013098.