The Zande languages are half a dozen closely related languages of the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Sudan. The most populous language is Zande proper, with over a million speakers.

Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan
Linguistic classificationNiger-Congo?
  • Zande languages
    • Zande-Nzakara
      • Zande
  • Barambo–Pambia
  • Zande–Nzakara
ISO 639-2 / 5znd


Per Boyd (1988), the structure of the family is as follows:[1]


Zande is traditionally included among the Ubangian languages, although Moñino (2010) does not group it within Ubangian.[2] It is not clear if it is a member of the Niger–Congo family, or where it might be in that family.


  1. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zandic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Moñino Y., The position of Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka group among the Niger-Congo languages // Genealogical classification in Africa beyond Greenberg. - Berlin: Humboldt Universität, 2010 February 21–22

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