Sheikh Ahmad Zainuddin Makhdoom bin Sheikh Muhammad Al Gazzali (Arabic: شيخ احمد زين الدين بن شيخ محمد غزالي المليباري; Ahmad Zayn al-Din ibn Muhammad al-Ghazāli al-Malibári), grandson of Sheikh Zainuddin Makhdoom I, was the writer, orator, historian,[1] jurisprudent and spiritual leader and widely known as Zainuddin Makhdoom Second[2] or Zaniudeen Makhdoom Al Sageer (زين الدين المخدوم الصغير) whose family originated from Yemen. He inherited the legacy of his grandfather and was installed as the Chief Qadi (judge) in the locality of Ponnani, Kerala, India, as well as appointed as the Chief Müderris (head teacher) in the historic Ponnani Dars at Ponnani Jum'ah Masjid,[3] that built by Zainuddin Makhdoom I.[4][5]

Sheikh Ahmad Zainuddin Makhdoom
Born1531 (938 AH)
Chombala (Azhiyoor, Calicut District, Kerala State), near Mahé, present day India.
Occupation(s)Qadi and Writer
Known forIslamic jurisprudent, author of Fat'h Ul Mueen and Tuhafat Ul Mujahideen
Notable workTuhfat Ul Mujahideen
TitleQadi of Chombal
PredecessorSheikh Muhammad Al Gazzali
  • Sheikh Muhammad Al Gazzali bin Sheikh Zainuddin bin Sheikh Ali bin Sheikh Ahmad Ma'bari (father)

Early life edit

He was born to the Makdoom family in the early months of Hijra 938 (c. 1531 CE) at Chombala (Azhiyoor Panchayath, Calicut District, Kerala State, India) Near Mahe, and received religious instruction under the supervision of his grandfather. He completed his primary education under his father Muhammed Gazzali and his uncle Abdul Azeez Bin Sheikh Makhdoom Al Avval ( عبد العزيز بن شيخ مخدوم الآول) and left for Makah for further study. He performed the Haj and settled there for ten years imbibing Islamic knowledge from exponents of Islamic law and other branches of knowledge. He received the guidance of famous scholars such as Al Hafiz Shihabuddeen bin Al Hajr Al Haithemi (الحافظ شهاب الدين بن الحجر الهيتمي), Grand Mufti of Haramain (chief jurisprudent of Makah and Madina) and commentator in Hadeeth and Fiqh, Izzuddeen bin Abdul Azeez al Zamzami (عز الدين بن عبد العزيز الزمزمي), Shiekh Abdul Rahman bin Ziyad (شيخ عبد الرحمن بن زياد) and Sayyid Abdul Rahman Al Safwi (سيد عبد الرحمن الصفوي). He gained the Tassawwuf (Sufi spiritual knowledge) from Kutub Zaban Zain Ul Arifeen Muhammed Bin Sheikh Ul Arif Abu Hasan Al Bakri (قطب الزمان زين العارفين محمد بن شيخ العارف ابو حسن البكري) and was honored with eleven Khirkath (خرقة), symbol of grade in Tareeqath. Within a short period he was hailed as the Sheikh of Qadriya Tareeqath.

In the field of service edit

After the decade-long stay in Makkah, he returned to Kerala and took charge as chief Mufti in the grand Masjid of Ponnani, a position he occupied for thirty-six years. A historian recorded that his mentor Ibn Hajar Hithami had come to Ponnani and stayed there for a short period. It is said that the famous lamp made of stone, presented by Ibn Hajar Hithami, is still kept in Ponnani Dars.[6]

As the freedom fighter edit

He did not limit himself to work as a cleric, but made many significant intervention in the political arena, keeping warm relations with the major political figures in that period. He lived during the regime of Akbar of the Mughal Empire and had a good relationship with Sultan Ali Adil Shah I, Sultan of Bijapur, as well as the Zamorin of Calicut. He was a strident advocate of freedom struggles against the imperialist power of Portugal, and motivated the youth to take part in the special army of Zamorin to defend against them. In his masterpiece Tufathul Mujahideen Fi Akhbar ul Burthugalin, he narrated the brutality of the Portuguese on the Malabar soil with special reference to their anti-Muslim stance. He used to instil in Muslim youth the necessity of holy war and the inevitability of military action against the Portuguese. In the aforementioned text, he motivated them by exuding the endless promises of the Almighty for those who waged war against them, and boosted their morale by leading their mind to the sweet memories of the golden age of Islam.[7][8]

Books by Makhdoom II edit

He was known for his unique command in writing in variety of subjects which includes jurisprudence, history, spirituality as well as other subjects which were distinct from other writers. The following table gives an overview of his works.

No Names in English Original Name Meaning of Titles Core Subject
1 Tuhfatul Mujahedeen Fi Bali Akhbar Ul Burthugaleen[9][10][11][12][13][14][15] تحفة المجاهدين في بعض اخبارالبرتغالين


Presentation for warriors on some news related to the Portuguese[18][19] History of Muslims in Kerala with special reference to the brutalities of the Portuguese invasion[20][21][22]
2 Historia dos Portugueses no Malabar[23]
3 Fathul Mueen Sherh Kurrathul Ain[24][25][26][27] فتح المعين شرح قرة العين Fathul Mueen the annotation on Kurrathul Ain Exemplary text on Jurisprudence based on the Shafi school of thought; annotation on his own text Kurratul Ain. Taught in some of the most renowned Islamic Universities such as Al Azhar, Egypt.[28]
4 Kurrathul Ain Bi Muhimmati Ddeen[29] قرة العين بمهمات الدين Special attention on the major religious issues Precise text on jurisprudence based on the Shafi school of thought
5 Irshadul Ibad Ila Sabeelil Rashad[30][31][32] ارشاد العباد الى سبيل الرشاد


Guidance for the slave to rectitude Spiritual text explaining the way to the Almighty
6 Ihkham Ahkam Nikah احكام احكام النكاح Consolidation on the laws related to marriage Precise explanation of the laws relating to marriage
7 Sharhu Swadr Fi Ahval ul Mautha شرح الصدور في احوال الموتى Widening of the chest in the context of the dead Spiritual text explaining the context of the afterworld; it was an annotation of the work done by Sooyoothi (السيوطي)
8 Ajvbathul Ajeebah An Asilathul Gareebah الاجوبة العجيبة عن الاسئلة الغريبة Wonderful answers for rare questions Collection of decrees issued on various issues
9 Fatawa Al Hindiyyat الفتاوى الهندية Indian decree Decree issued on the special context of southern Indian state of Kerala
10 Al Jawahir Fi Uqoobati Ahlil Kabair[34][35] الجواهر في عقوبة اهل الكبائر Gems on the consequence of the culprits Spiritual text explaining the consequences for criminals
11 Al Manhajul Vadih المنهج الواضح The obvious pattern Text explaining laws relating to marriage
12 Al-Isti'dād Lil-Mawt Wa-su'āl al-Qabr[36] الاستعداد للموت وسؤال القبر

Demise edit

He died of natural causes in 1583 and was laid to rest in Kunjhippalli (Near Mahe, Azhiyoor Grama panchayath, Calicut District, Kerala, India). His khabar lies under a tree in his native Chompala(Azhiyoor Panchayath).

References edit

  1. ^ Akbar, Ali (7 December 2012). "Makhdum II – a great Islamic scholar lost in history". Arabnews. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  2. ^ Sebastian R. Prange (2018). Monsoon Islam: Trade and Faith on the Medieval Malabar Coast. Cambridge University Press. pp. 110–113. ISBN 9781108424387. He is often referred to locally as 'Makhdum II'.
  3. ^ "Calicut University seminar on naval strategy". Deccan Chronicle. 16 July 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Ponnani Juma Masjid". Kerala Tourism. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  5. ^ "Cultural dialogue: Tracing Yemeni Ancestry through a Pazheri Identity". Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  6. ^ Dr. Ali Akbar (30 November 2012). "Makhdum II – a great Islamic scholar lost in history". Arab News. Riyadh: Arab News. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  7. ^ Nadvi, Syed Ehtisham Ahmed Nadvi; Kutty, E. K. Ahmed (2003). Arabic in South India: Papers in Honour of Prof. S. E. A. Nadvi. Department of Arabic, University of Calicut.
  8. ^ "Roots of the Mappila Revolt –". Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  9. ^ Staff Reporter (29 July 2015). "Thuhfathul Mujahideen united people of Malabar". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  10. ^ Kurup, K. K. N. (2015). "Sheikh zainudheen Makhdoom 2nd and thuhfatul Mujahideen الشيخ زين الدين المخدوم الثاني وكتاب تحفة المجاهدين". (in Malayalam). Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  11. ^ Makhdoom-II, Zainudhin (2014). "Thuhfatul mujahideen ( English, Malayalam& Hindi )". (in Malayalam). Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  12. ^ Malībārī, Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz; Rowlandson, Michael John (1833). Tohfut-ul-mujahideen: an historical work in the Arabic language. London: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 6830733.
  13. ^ "MDZ-Reader | Band | Tohfut-ul-mujahideen, an historical work in the Arabic language / Malībarī, Zain-ad-Dīn Ibn-ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz al- | Tohfut-ul-mujahideen, an historical work in the Arabic language / Malībarī, Zain-ad-Dīn Ibn-ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz al-". Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  14. ^ Sheikh Zainuddin Al- Makhdoom-II (2014). Abdul Kader N A M; Ismail E; Imran Azami (eds.). Tuhfat ul Mujahideen: tribute to warriors. New Delhi: National Mission for manuscript. ISBN 978-93-80829-02-9.
  15. ^ Malībārī, Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz; Nainar, S. Muhammad Husayn (2006). Tuḥfat-al-mujāhidīn: a historical epic of the sixteenth century. Kuala Lumpur; Calicut: Islamic Book Trust ; Other Books. ISBN 978-983-9154-80-1. OCLC 181084620.
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  18. ^ مليباري، زين الدين بن عبد العزيز; Rowlandson, Michael John; Oriental Translation Fund (1833). Tohfut ul-mujahideen. OCLC 978443154.
  19. ^ "Tuhfat ul mujahideen - Webcat Plus". Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  20. ^ مليباري، زين الدين بن عبد العزيز; طيبي، أمين توفيق (1987). تحفة المجاهدين في بعض أخبار البرتغاليين (in Arabic). Ṭarābulus [Libya: Kullīyat al-Daʻwah al-Islāmīyah. OCLC 23177298.
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  22. ^ Malībārī, Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz; Qādrī, Sayyid Shamsullāh; K̲h̲ān, Muḥamad Ḥabīburraḥmān (1942). اردو ترجمہ تحفة المجاہدین فی بعض اخبار البرتکالیین [یعنی البرتگالیین] (in Japanese). شروانی پرنٹنگ پریس.
  23. ^ مليباري، زين الدين بن عبد العزيز (1898). Lopes, David (ed.). Historia dos Portugueses no Malabar. Quarto centenario do descobrimento da India. Portugal: Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa. OCLC 978650321.
  24. ^ مليباري, زين الدين بن عبد العزيز; معبري المليباري، زين الدين بن علي; علي بن أحمد بن سعيد با صبرين (1871). فتح المعين بشرح قرة العين (in Arabic). OCLC 987456379.
  25. ^ مليباري، زين الدين بن عبد العزيز; شطا، أبو بكر بن محمد، (1883). فتح المعين (in Arabic). OCLC 950747175.
  26. ^ مليباري، زين الدين ابن عبد العزيز; جابي، بسام عبد الوهاب (2004). فتح المعين بشرح قرة العين بمهمات الدين (in Arabic). Limassol; بيروت: الجفان والجابي ؛ دار ابن حزم،. OCLC 57219377.
  27. ^ مليباري, زين الدين بن عبد العزيز (1983). كتاب فتح المعين بشرح قرة العين (in Arabic). ترورنگاڈي, كيرله: عامر الاسلام. OCLC 24709093.
  28. ^ "About Author Zainuddin Makhdoom I". (in Malayalam). Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  29. ^ مليباري، زين الدين بن عبد العزيز; نووي بنتن، (1881). قرة العين (in Arabic). OCLC 987452200.
  30. ^ Malībārī, Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz (1879). Irshād al-ʻibād ilá subul al-rashād (in Arabic). Cairo: al-Maṭbaʻah al-Wahbīyah. OCLC 780175595.
  31. ^ Ibn Saḥmān, al-Shaykh Sulaymān (1921–1922). Irshād al-ṭālib ilá ahamm al-maṭālib. Miṣr: Maṭbaʻat al-Manār.
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  33. ^ Malībārī, Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (1939). ارشاد العباد الى سبيل الرشاد ؛ وبهامشه مختصر جليل يتضمن أحاديث وأثارا ومواعظ تتعلق بالموت وما بعد (in Japanese) (الطبعة الأخيرة ed.). شركة مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى البابي الحلبي وأولاده بمصر.
  34. ^ مليباري، زين الدين بن عبد العزيز (1978). الجواهر في عقوبة اهل الكبائر (in Arabic). al-Qāhirah: Maktabat al-Qāhirah. OCLC 10515830.
  35. ^ Malībārī, Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz (1984). al-Jawāhir fī ʻuqūbat ahl al-kabāʼir (in Arabic). Lebanon: Dār al-Ruqīy. OCLC 61623595.
  36. ^ مليباري، زين الدين بن عبد العزيز بن زين الدين المعبري،; ،مركز التراث; Al Manhal FZLLC (2013). الاستعداد للموت وسؤال القبر (in Arabic). OCLC 882494364.

Further reading edit