ZaSu Pitts (/ /; born Eliza Susan Pitts; January 3, 1894 – June 7, 1963)[a] was an American actress who starred in many silent dramas and comedies, transitioning successfully to mostly comedy films with the advent of sound films. She may be best known for her performance in Erich von Stroheim's epic silent film Greed.
Pitts in 1930
|Born||Eliza Susan Pitts
January 3, 1894
Parsons, Kansas, U.S.
|Died||June 7, 1963
Hollywood, California, U.S.
John E. Woodall
(1933–1963; her death)
Eliza Susan Pitts was born in Parsons, Kansas, to Rulandus and Nelly (née Shay) Pitts; she was the third of four children. Her father, who had lost a leg while serving in the 76th New York Infantry in the Civil War, had settled the family in Kansas by the time ZaSu was born.
The names of her father's sisters, Eliza and Susan, were purportedly the basis for the nickname "ZaSu", i.e., to satisfy competing family interests. She later adopted the nickname professionally and legally. It has been (incorrectly) spelled as Zazu Pitts in some film credits and news articles. Although the name is commonly mispronounced // ZAZ-oo or // ZAY-soo, or // ZAY-zoo, in her 1963 book Candy Hits (p. 15), Pitts herself gives the correct pronunciation as "Say Zoo" //, recounting that Mary Pickford had predicted, "[M]any will mispronounce it", and adding, "How right [she] was."
In 1903, when she was nine years old, her family moved to Santa Cruz, California, to seek a warmer climate and better job opportunities. Her childhood home at 208 Lincoln Street still stands. She attended Santa Cruz High School, where she participated in school theatricals.
Pitts made her stage debut in 1914–15 doing school and local community theater in Santa Cruz. Going to Los Angeles in 1916, at the age of twenty-two, she spent many months seeking work as a film extra. Finally she was discovered for substantive roles in films by screenwriter Frances Marion. Marion cast Pitts as an orphaned slavey (child of work) in the silent film, A Little Princess (1917), starring Pickford.
Pitts' popularity grew following a series of Universal one-reeler comedies and earned her first feature-length lead in King Vidor's Better Times (1919). The following year she married her first husband, Tom Gallery, with whom she was paired in several films, including Heart of Twenty (1920), Bright Eyes (1921), Patsy (1921) and A Daughter of Luxury (1922). In 1924, the actress, now a reputable comedy farceuse, was given the greatest tragic role of her career in Erich von Stroheim's 9 1⁄2-hour epic Greed (1924). The surprise casting initially shocked Hollywood, but showed that Pitts could draw tears with her doleful demeanor as well as laughs. Having been extensively edited prior to release—the final theatrical cut ran just over two hours—the movie failed initially at the box office, but has since been restored to over four hours and is considered one of the greatest films ever made. Based on her performance, von Stroheim labeled Pitts "the greatest dramatic actress". He also featured her in his films The Honeymoon (1928), The Wedding March (1928), War Nurse (1930) and Walking Down Broadway, released as Hello, Sister! (1933).
Pitts enjoyed her greatest fame in the early 1930s, often starring in B movies and comedy short films, teamed with Thelma Todd.[b] She played secondary parts in many films. Her stock persona (a fretful, flustered, worried spinster) made her instantly recognizable and was often imitated in cartoons and other films. She starred in a number of Hal Roach short films and features, and co-starred in a series of feature-length comedies with Slim Summerville. Switching between comedy short films and features, by the advent of sound, she was relegated to comedy roles. A bitter disappointment was when she was replaced in the classic war drama All Quiet on the Western Front (1930) by Beryl Mercer after her initial appearance in previews drew unintentional laughs, despite her intense performance. She had viewers rolling in the aisles in Finn and Hattie (1931), The Guardsman (1931), Blondie of the Follies (1932), Sing and Like It (1934) and Ruggles of Red Gap (1935). In 1936 and 1937 she portrayed Hildegarde Withers in two movies, succeeding Edna May Oliver as the spinster sleuth, but they were not well received.
In the 1940s, she found work in radio, trading banter with Bing Crosby, Al Jolson, W.C. Fields, and Rudy Vallee, among others. Pitts' activities on radio included playing Miss Mamie Wayne on the soap opera Big Sister. She appeared several times on the earliest Fibber McGee and Molly show, playing a dizzy dame constantly looking for a husband.
In 1944, Pitts tackled Broadway, making her debut in the mystery, Ramshackle Inn. The play, written expressly for her, did well, and she took the show on the road in later years. Post-war films continued to give Pitts the chance to play comic snoops and flighty relatives in such fare as Life with Father (1947), but in the 1950s she started focusing on television. This culminated in her best known series role, playing second banana to Gale Storm on CBS's The Gale Storm Show (1956) (also known as Oh, Susannah) in the role of Elvira Nugent ("Nugie"), the shipboard beautician. In 1961, Pitts was cast opposite Earle Hodgins in the episode "Lonesome's Gal" on the ABC sitcom, Guestward, Ho!, set on a dude ranch in New Mexico. In 1962, Pitts appeared in an episode of CBS's Perry Mason, "The Case of the Absent Artist". Her final role was as Gertie, the switchboard operator in the Stanley Kramer comedy epic It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963).
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Pitts was married to actor Thomas Sarsfield Gallery from 1920 to 1933. Gallery became a Los Angeles boxing promoter and later a TV executive. The couple had two children: Ann Gallery (born 1922) and Donald Michael "Sonny" Gallery (né Marvin Carville La Marr), who they adopted and renamed after the 1926 death of his mother (and Pitts' friend) silent film actress Barbara La Marr. In 1933, she married John Edward "Eddie" Woodall, with whom she remained until her death.
Declining health dominated Pitts' later years, particularly after she was diagnosed with cancer in the mid-1950s. She continued to work, appearing on TV and making brief appearances in The Thrill of It All (1963) and It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World. She died June 7, 1963, aged 69, in Hollywood and was interred at Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City. Pitts wrote a book of candy recipes, Candy Hits by ZaSu Pitts, which was published posthumously in 1963.
In 1994, she was honored with her image on a United States postage stamp along with luminaries such as Rudolph Valentino, Clara Bow and Charlie Chaplin as part of The Silent Screen Stars stamp set, designed by caricaturist Al Hirschfeld. In Parsons, Kansas, there is a star tile at the entrance to the Parsons Theatre to commemorate her.
In the film Never Give a Sucker an Even Break, W.C. Fields asks his niece, played by Gloria Jean, "Don't you want to go to school? You wanna be dumb like ZaSu Pitts?" Gloria Jean replied "She only acts like that in pictures. I like her".
|1917||Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm||Undetermined Role||Uncredited|
|1917||Little Princess, TheThe Little Princess||Becky|
|1918||A Modern Musketeer||A Kansas Belle||Uncredited|
|1918||How Could You Jean?||Oscar's Sweetheart|
|1918||Talk of the Town, TheThe Talk of the Town|
|1918||Greatest Thing in Life, TheThe Greatest Thing in Life||(scenes deleted)|
|1919||A Lady's Name||Emily|
|1919||As the Sun Went Down||Sal Sue|
|1919||Men, Women, and Money||Katie Jones|
|1919||Better Times||Nancy Scroggs|
|1919||Other Half, TheThe Other Half||Jennie Jones, The Jazz Kid|
|1919||Poor Relations||Daisy Perkins|
|1920||Heart of Twenty||Katie Abbott|
|1920||Seeing It Through||Betty Lawrence|
|1922||Is Matrimony a Failure?||Mrs. Wilbur|
|1922||For the Defense||Jennie Dunn|
|1922||Youth to Youth||Emily|
|1922||A Daughter of Luxury||Mary Cosgrove|
|1923||Mary of the Movies||Herself||Cameo role|
|1923||The Girl Who Came Back||Anastasia Muldoon|
|1923||Souls for Sale||Herself||Cameo role|
|1923||Three Wise Fools||Mickey|
|1923||Tea: With a Kick!||'Brainy' Jones|
|1923||West of the Water Tower||Dessie Arnhalt|
|1924||Daughters of Today||Lorena|
|1924||The Goldfish||Amelia Pugsley|
|1924||Triumph||A Factory Girl|
|1924||Legend of Hollywood||Mary Brown|
|1924||Wine of Youth||Lucy||(scenes deleted)|
|1924||The Fast Set||Mona|
|1924||Secrets of the Night||Celia Stebbins|
|1924||Sunlight of Paris|
|1925||Great Divide, TheThe Great Divide||Polly Jordan|
|1925||The Re-Creation of Brian Kent||Judy|
|1925||Pretty Ladies||Maggie Keenan|
|1925||A Woman's Faith||Blanche Odile|
|1925||The Business of Love||Miss Wright|
|1925||Thunder Mountain||Mandy Coulter|
|1925||Wages for Wives||Luella Logan|
|1925||Great Love, TheThe Great Love||Nancy|
|1926||What Happened to Jones||Hilda|
|1926||Monte Carlo||Hope Durant|
|1926||Early to Wed||Mrs. Dugan|
|1926||Sunny Side Up||Evelyn|
|1926||Risky Business||Agnes Wheaton|
|1926||Her Big Night||Gladys Smith|
|1927||Casey at the Bat||Camille Gibson|
|1928||13 Washington Square||Mathilde|
|1928||Wedding March, TheThe Wedding March||Cecelia Schweisser|
|1928||Sins of the Fathers||Mother Spengler|
|1929||The Dummy||Rose Gleason|
|1929||The Argyle Case||Mrs. Wyatt|
|1929||Her Private Life||Timmins|
|1929||Oh, Yeah?||The Elk|
|1929||Locked Door, TheThe Locked Door||Telephone Girl|
|1929||This Thing Called Love||Clara Bertrand|
|1930||No, No, Nanette||Pauline Hastings|
|1930||All Quiet on the Western Front||Frau Bäumer||Silent Version Trailer only, (scenes deleted)|
|1930||Devil's Holiday, TheThe Devil's Holiday||Ethel|
|1930||The Little Accident||Monica|
|1930||The Lottery Bride||Hilda|
|1930||Sin Takes a Holiday||Annie|
|1930||The Honeymoon||Caecilia||Lost film
Released only in Europe
|1930||Passion Flower||Mrs. Harney|
|1931||Finn and Hattie||Mrs. Haddock|
|1931||Beyond Victory||Mademoiselle Fritzi|
|1931||A Woman of Experience||Katie|
|1931||Their Mad Moment||Miss Dibbs|
|1931||The Big Gamble||Nora Dugan|
|1931||Penrod and Sam||Mrs. Bassett||Alternative title: The Adventures of Penrod and Sam|
|1931||Guardsman, TheThe Guardsman||Liesl, the Maid|
|1931||The Secret Witness||Bella|
|1931||On the Loose||Zasu||Short film|
|1932||The Unexpected Father||Polly Perkins|
|1932||Broken Lullaby||Anna, Holderlin's Maid|
|1932||Destry Rides Again||Temperance Worker||Alternative title: Justice Rides Again|
|1932||The Trial of Vivienne Ware||Gladys Fairweather|
|1932||Strangers of the Evening||Sybil Smith|
|1932||Westward Passage||Mrs. Truesdale|
|1932||Is My Face Red?||Morning Gazette Telephone Operator|
|1932||Make Me a Star||Mrs. Scudder|
|1932||Roar of the Dragon||Gabby Woman|
|1932||The Vanishing Frontier||Aunt Sylvia|
|1932||Blondie of the Follies||Gertie|
|1932||Back Street||Mrs. Dole|
|1932||Crooked Circle, TheThe Crooked Circle||Nora Rafferty|
|1932||Once in a Lifetime||Miss Leyton|
|1932||Madison Square Garden||Florrie|
|1932||They Just Had to Get Married||Molly Hull|
|1933||Out All Night||Bunny|
|1933||Professional Sweetheart||Elmerada de Leon|
|1933||Her First Mate||Mary Horner|
|1933||Love, Honor, and Oh Baby!||Connie Clark|
|1933||Aggie Appleby, Maker of Men||Sybby 'Sib'|
|1933||Meet the Baron||ZaSu|
|1933||Mr. Skitch||Maddie Skitch|
|1934||The Meanest Gal in Town||Tillie Prescott|
|1934||Two Alone||Esthey Roberts|
|1934||Three on a Honeymoon||Alice Mudge|
|1934||Sing and Like It||Annie Snodgrass|
|1934||Love Birds||Araminta Tootle|
|1934||Private Scandal||Miss Coates|
|1934||Dames||Matilda Ounce Hemingway|
|1934||Their Big Moment||Tillie Whim|
|1934||Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch||Miss Hazy|
|1934||Gay Bride, TheThe Gay Bride||Mirabelle|
|1935||Ruggles of Red Gap||Prunella Judson|
|1935||Spring Tonic||Maggie Conklin|
|1935||Going Highbrow||Mrs. Cora Upshaw|
|1935||She Gets Her Man||Esmeralda|
|1935||Hot Tip||Belle McGill|
|1935||The Affairs of Susan||Susan Todd|
|1936||Thirteen Hours by Air||Miss Harkins|
|1936||Mad Holiday||Mrs. Kinney|
|1936||The Plot Thickens||Hildegarde Withers|
|1936||Sing Me a Love Song||Gwen Logan|
|1937||Merry Comes to Town||Winnie Oatfield|
|1937||Forty Naughty Girls||Hildegarde Withers|
|1937||52nd Street||Letitia Rondell|
|1939||Lady's from Kentucky, TheThe Lady's from Kentucky||Dulcey Lee|
|1939||Naughty but Nice||Aunt Penelope Hardwick|
|1939||Mickey the Kid||Lilly Handy|
|1939||Nurse Edith Cavell||Mme. Moulin|
|1939||Eternally Yours||Mrs. Cary Bingham|
|1940||It All Came True||Miss Flint|
|1940||No, No Nanette||Pauline Hastings|
|1941||Niagara Falls||Emmy Sawyer|
|1941||Weekend for Three||Anna|
|1941||Miss Polly||Miss Pandora Polly|
|1941||The Mexican Spitfire's Baby||Miss Emily Pepper|
|1941||Uncle Joe||Julia Jordan - the Widow|
|1942||Mexican Spitfire at Sea||Miss Pepper|
|1942||Bashful Bachelor, TheThe Bashful Bachelor||Geraldine|
|1942||So's Your Aunt Emma||Aunt Emma Bates||Alternative title: Meet the Mob|
|1943||Let's Face It!||Cornelia Figeson|
|1946||Breakfast in Hollywood||Elvira Spriggens|
|1947||Life with Father||Cousin Cora Cartwright|
|1950||Francis||Nurse Valerie Humpert|
|1952||Denver and Rio Grande||Jane Dwyer|
|1954||Francis Joins the WACS||Lt. Valerie Humpert|
|1957||This Could Be the Night||Mrs. Katie Shea - Landlady|
|1961||Teenage Millionaire, TheThe Teenage Millionaire||Aunt Theodora|
|1963||Thrill of It All, TheThe Thrill of It All||Olivia||Posthumous Release; filmed in 1962|
|1963||It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World||Gertie - Switchboard Operator||Posthumous Release; filmed in 1962 (final film role)|
|1954||Best of Broadway, TheThe Best of Broadway||Miss Preen||Episode: "The Man Who Came to Dinner"|
|1955||Screen Directors Playhouse||Selma||Episode: "The Silent Partner"|
|1956||20th Century Fox Hour, TheThe 20th Century Fox Hour||Miss Appleton||Episode: "Mr. Belvedere"|
|1956–1960||Gale Storm Show, TheThe Gale Storm Show||Elvira Nugent||91 episodes|
|1957||Private Secretary||Aunt Martha||Episode: "Not Quite Paradise"|
|1960||Dennis O'Keefe Show, TheThe Dennis O'Keefe Show||Loretta Kimball||Episode: "Dimples"|
|1961||Guestward, Ho!||Episode: "Lonesome's Gal"|
|1961||Perry Mason||Daphne Whilom||Episode: "The Case of the Absent Artist"|
|1963||Burke's Law||Mrs. Bowie||Episode: "Who Killed Holly Howard?" Posthumous Air Date|
- Pitts' year of birth is difficult to pinpoint. Kansas did not keep birth records prior to 1911. Many sources, including Halliwell's Filmgoer's Companion, give 1898 as the year; her obituary in the New York Times gives 1900, which also appears on her headstone; Pitts biographer Stumpf gives 1894 and Notable American Women points out that the 1900 US Census gives her age as six years old.
- She and Todd are listed by Variety as the top two actors in number of film roles in the early 1930s (pre-1933).
- Zasu Pitts (1963). Candy Hits by ZaSu Pitts. Duell, Sloan and Pearce. p. 15.
- Harold J. Salemson (1980). "Zasu Pitts". In Barbara Sicherman; Carol Hurd Green. Notable American Women: The Modern Period. A Biographical Dictionary. Harvard University Press. pp. 547–548. ISBN 978-0-674-62733-8.
- Charles Stumpf (2010). ZaSu Pitts: The Life and Career. McFarland. pp. 3; 82; 100; 103–104. ISBN 978-0-7864-6023-6.
- Phil Reader. Mike Brown, ed. "Rulandus Pitts". 76th New York State Volunteers "The Cortland Regiment". Retrieved June 7, 2010.
- Barbara Giffen (1984). "ZaSu Pitts: Actress 1898–1963". Santa Cruz Public Library. Retrieved June 7, 2010.
- Koszarski, Richard (1983). Von: The Life and Films of Erich Von Stroheim. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 168. ISBN 0879109548.
- Klepper, Robert K. (2005). Silent Films, 1877-1996: A Critical Guide to 646 Movies. McFarland. p. 286. ISBN 0786421649.
- "Who's Grabbin' The Jobs: Hollywood Has Its Chosen Few". Variety. 110 (10): 3. May 16, 1933. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- Stuart Palmer (2013). Hildegarde Withers in The Riddle of the Blueblood Murders. Wildside Press LLC. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4344-4637-4.
- "ZaSu Pitts". Hollywood Walk of Fame. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
- Christopher Smith (March 3, 2010). "ZaSu Pitts". Hollywood Star Walk. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "29-cent Zasu Pitts single". Arago—People, Postage & the Post: Silent Screen Stars. Smithsonian, National Postal Museum. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "Zasu Pitts". Kansapedia. Kansas Historical Society. April 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- Daniel Eagan (2010). America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry. A&C Black. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-8264-2977-3.