The Yemek (Arabic: Īmāk / Yamāk) were a Turkic speaking tribe[1] known from Arab and Persian medieval geographers as one of the seven tribes in the Kimek confederation (Arabic: Kīmāk) in the period of 850–1050 AD. The other six constituent tribes, according to Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061), were the Imur (or Imi), Tatars, Bayandur, Kipchaks, Lanikaz, and Ajlad.[2]

EthnonymEdit

Minorsky, citing Marquart, Barthold, Semenov and other sources, proposes that the name Kīmāk (pronounced Kimäk) is derived from Iki-Imäk, "the two Imäk", probably referring to the first two clans (Īmī and Īmāk) of the federation.[3]

On the other hand, Pritsak attempted to connect the Kimek with the Proto-Mongolic Kumo of the Kumo Xi confederation (庫莫奚; Middle Chinese: kʰuoH-mɑk̚-ɦei; *qu(o)mâġ-ġay, from *quo "yellowish" plus denominal suffix *-mAk); Golden judges Pritsak's reconstruction "highly problematic", as Pritsak did not explain how Quomâġ might have produced Kimek; still, Golden considers the connection with the Proto-Mongolic world seriously.[4]

Mahmud al-Kashgari does not mention any Kimek, but Yamāk; Kashgari further remarked that Kara-Khanids like him considered Yemeks to be "a tribe of the Kipchaks", though contemporary Kipchaks considered themselves a different party.[5][6][7] The ethnonym Yemäk might have been transcribed in the mid 7th century by Chinese authors as 鹽莫 Yánmò < Middle Chinese *jiäm-mâk,[8] referring a Tiele group who initially inhabited northwestern Mongolia before migrating to north of Altay Mountains and Irtysh zone.[9][10][a]

Initially, Golden (1992:202, 227, 263) accepted the identification of Kimeks with Imeks/Yimeks/Yemeks, because the /k/ > ∅, resulting in Kimek > İmek, was indeed attested in several Medieval Kipchak dialects; Golden also thought Yemeks unlikely to be 鹽莫 *jiäm-mâk > Yánmò in Chinese source.[13] However, Golden later changed his mind, reasoning that, as the Medieval Kipchak dialectal sound-change /k/ > ∅ had not yet happened in the mid-7th century Old Turkic, the identification of Yemeks with Kimeks is disputed. As a result, Golden (2002:660-665) later abandons the Kimeks > Yemeks identification and becomes more amenable to the identification of 鹽莫 Yánmò with Yemeks, by scholars such as Hambis, Zuev, and Kumekov, cited in Golden (1992:202).[14] According to Tishin (2018), Yemeks were simply the most important of the seven constituent tribes whose representatives met at the Irtysh valley, where the diverse Kimek tribal union emerged, as related by Gardizi.[15]

HistoryEdit

In the Western Turkic Khaganate two Chuy tribes, Chumukun and Chuban, occupied a privileged position of being voting members of the confederation's Onoq elite,[16] but not their kins Chuyue and Chumi. A part of the Chuyue tribe intermixed with the Göktürks' remnants and formed a tribe called Shatuo, which lived in southern Dzungaria, to the west of Lake Barkol.[17] The Shatuo separated from the Chuyue in the middle of the 7th century. Until very recently, Chigils are a well known ethnic group, listed in censuses taken in Tsarist Russia and in the 20th century.

After the disintegration in 743 AD of the Western Turkic Kaganate, a part of the Chuy tribes remained in its successor, the Uyghur Kaganate (740-840), and another part retained their independence.[18] During the Uyghur period, the Chuy tribes consolidated into the nucleus of the tribes known as Kimaks in the Arab and Persian sources.[19] Lev Gumilyov associated one Duolu Chuy tribe, Chumukun 處木昆 (< *čomuqun "immersed in water, drowned")[20] with the Kimeks as both coincidentally occupied the same territory, i.e. Semirechye, and that Chumukun were known only to Chinese and Kimek only to Persians and Arabs.[21][22] The head of the Kimek confederation was titled Shad Tutuq, "Prince Governor"[23] (tutuk being from Middle Chinese tuo-tuok 都督 "military governor");[24] as well as Yinal Yabghu, according to Gardizi.[25] By the middle of the eighth century, the Kimeks occupied territory between the Ural River and Emba River, and from the Aral sea and Caspian steppes, to the Zhetysu area.

Kimek KhanateEdit

After the 840 AD breakup of the Uyghur Kaganate, the Yemeks headed a new political tribal union, creating a new Kimek state. Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061) wrote that the Kimak federation consisted of seven tribes: Yemeks (Ar. Yamāk < MTrk *Yemǟk or *(Y)imēk), Eymür, Tatars, Bayandur, Kipchak, Lanikaz and Ajlad. Later, an expanded Kimek Kaganate partially controlled the territories of the Oguz, Kangly, and Bagjanak tribes, and in the west bordered the Khazar and Bulgar territories. The Kimaks led a semi-settled life, as the Hudūd mentioned a town named *Yimäkiya (> Yamakkiyya > ms. Namakiyya); while the Kipchaks, in some customs, resembled the contemporary Oghuzes, who were nomadic herders.[26][27]

In the beginning of the eleventh century the Kipchak Khanlyk moved west, occupying lands that had earlier belonged to the Oguz. After seizing the Oguz lands, the Kipchaks grew considerably stronger, and the Kimeks became dependents of the Kipchaks. The fall of the Kimek Kaganate in the middle of the 11th century was caused by the migration of Central Asian Mongolian-speaking nomads, displaced by the Mongolian-speaking Khitan state of Liao, which formed in 916 AD in Northern China. The Khitan nomads occupied the Kimek and Kipchak lands west of the Irtysh. In the eleventh to twelfth centuries a Mongol-speaking Naiman tribe displaced the Kimeks and Kipchaks from the Mongolian Altai and Upper Irtysh as it moved west.

Between the ninth and thirteenth centuries Kimek tribes were nomadizing in the steppes of the modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia. A portion of the Kimeks that left the Ob-Irtysh interfluvial region joined the Kipchak confederation that survived until the Mongol invasion, and later united with the Nogai confederation of the Kipchak descendants. The last organized tribes of the Nogai in Russian sources were dispersed with the Russian construction of zaseka bulwarks in the Don and Volga regions in the 17th-18th centuries, which separated the cattle breeding populations from their summer pastures. Another part of the Nogai were deported from the Budjak steppes after Russian conquest of Western Ukraine and Moldova in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century.

Ethnolinguistic BelongingEdit

According to C. E. Bosworth (2007)[28] and R. Turaeva (2015) the Kimek tribe was Turkic.[29]

According to R. Preucel and S. Mrozowki (2010)[30] and S. Divitçioğlu (2010),[31] the Kimek tribe was Tungusic.

Josef Markwart proposed that Kimeks were Turkicized Tatars, who were related to the para-Mongolic-speaking Tatabï, known to Chinese as Kumo Xi.[32]

Sümer associates the Kimeks with the Chiks[33] (who were mentioned in Tang Huiyao[34][35] and Bilge Qaghan inscription[36]); however, Golden sees little evidence for this.[37]

GeneticsEdit

A genetic study published in Nature in May 2018 examined the remains of Kimek male buried in Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan ca. 1350 AD.[38][39] He was found to be carrying the paternal haplogroup R1b1b[40] and the maternal haplogroup A.[41] It was noted that he was not found to have "elevated East Asian ancestry".[42]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 鹽莫 Yánmò, from MC *jiäm-mâk, should not be confused with 燕末 Yànmò, from MC ʔenH-muɑt̚ (ZS) / *ˀien-muât (Zuev). 燕末 Yànmò, the residence of Xueyantuo Khagan Yağmurçin, is identified by Cen Zhongmian with the toponym Ïbar Baş (OTrk 𐰃𐰉𐰺𐱈‎) mentioned in Tonyukuk inscriptions[11][12]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Maħmūd al-Kašğari. "Dīwān Luğāt al-Turk". Edited & translated by Robert Dankoff in collaboration with James Kelly. In Sources of Oriental Languages and Literature. (1982). Part I. p. 82-83
  2. ^ Minorsky, V. (1937) "Commentary" on "§18. The Kimäk" in Ḥudūd al'Ālam. Translated and Explained by V. Minorsky. p. 304-305
  3. ^ Minorsky, V. (1937) "Commentary" on "§18. The Kimäk" in Ḥudūd al'Ālam. Translated and Explained by V. Minorsky. p. 304-305
  4. ^ Golden (1992). p. 202
  5. ^ Maħmūd al-Kašğari. "Dīwān Luğāt al-Turk". Edited & translated by Robert Dankoff in collaboration with James Kelly. In Sources of Oriental Languages and Literature. (1982). Part II. p. 161
  6. ^ Minorsky (1937) p. 305
  7. ^ Golden, Peter B. "Qıpčaq" in Turcology and Linguistics Hacettepe University, Ankara (2014). p. 188
  8. ^ Kumekov, B.E. (1972) "Gosudarstvo kimakov IX-XI vv. po arabskim istočnikam" Alma-Ata. p. 40, 45; cited in Golden (1992) p. 202, n. 84
  9. ^ Golden, Peter B. (2017) "Qıpčak" in Turcology and Linguistics. p. 187
  10. ^ Tongdian, Vol. 200
  11. ^ "Tonyukuk Inscriptions", line 26, text at Türik Bitig
  12. ^ Zuev Yu.A. "Xueyantuo Khaganate and Kimeks. ([A Contribution] to Turkic ethnogeography of Central Asia in the middle of 7th century)" in Shygys, Oriental Studies Institute, Almaty (2004). part 1. page 14
  13. ^ Peter B. Golden (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. O. Harrassowitz. p. 202.
  14. ^ Golden, P.B. (2002) “Notes on the Qïpchaq Tribes: Kimeks and Yemeks”, in The Turks, I, p. 662
  15. ^ Tishin, V.V (2018). ["Kimäk and Chù-mù-kūn (处木昆): Notes on an Identification" https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2018.46.3.107-113] p. 111
  16. ^ Tongdian, vol. 199
  17. ^ Gumilev, L.N. "Ancient Turks", Moscow, Science, 1967, Ch.20 http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/OT/ot20.htm
  18. ^ Faizrakhmanov, G. "Ancient Turks in Siberia and Central Asia"
  19. ^ S.A. Pletneva, "Kipchaks", p.26
  20. ^ Tishin, V.V (2018). ["Kimäk and Chù-mù-kūn (处木昆): Notes on an Identification" https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2018.46.3.107-113]. p. 107-113
  21. ^ Gumilyov, L. (2009) Searches for an Imaginary Kingdom: The Legend of the Kingdom of Prester John ch. 14 (in English; translated by R.E.F. Smith)
  22. ^ Gumilyov, L.N. Drevnie tyurki (1993:380-381). Moscow: Klyshnikov, Komarov i K°. p. cited in Tishin, V.V (2018). ["Kimäk and Chù-mù-kūn (处木昆): Notes on an Identification" https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2018.46.3.107-113] p. 107, 111
  23. ^ Faizrakhmanov, G. "Ancient Turks in Sibiria and Central Asia"
  24. ^ Ecsedy, H. (1965) “Old Turkic Titles of Chinese Origin”, in Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, volume 18, issue 1/2, Akadémiai Kiadó, p. 84 of pp. 83-91
  25. ^ Golden (1992) p. 203
  26. ^ Hudūd al-'Ālam "Sections 18, 19, 21" Translated and Explained by V. Minorsky (1937). p. 99-101
  27. ^ Minorsky, V.F. (1937) Commentary on Hudūd al-'Ālam on "Sections 18 & 19" p. 304-312, 315-317
  28. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2007). The Turks in the Early Islamic World. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-86078-719-8. Kimak - well-known Turkic tribe
  29. ^ Rano Turaeva (19 November 2015). Migration and Identity in Central Asia: The Uzbek Experience. Routledge. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-1-317-43007-0.
  30. ^ Preucel, Robert; Mrozowski, Stephen (May 10, 2010). Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: The New Pragmatism (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 296. ISBN 1405158328.
  31. ^ Divitçioğlu, Sencer (2010). Sekiz Türk Boyu Üzerine Gözlemler. Topkapı/İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası - Kultur Yayinlari. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-605-360-098-5.
  32. ^ Golden, P.B. (2002) p. 662
  33. ^ Sümer, F. (1980) Oğuzlar 3rd rev. ed. p.31, citedin Golden (1992) p. 202, n. 78
  34. ^ Tang Huiyao, Vol. 72 "馬。與迴紇(契)苾餘沒渾同類。印行。" tr. "Horse of the Chiks, same stock as Uyghurs', (Qi)bis', Yumei-Huns'. Tamga (resembles) (character) 行." (in Chinese)
  35. ^ Zuev, Yu. Horses Tamgas from Vassal Princedoms (Translation of Chinese composition "Tanghuiyao" of 8-10th centuries), Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences, Alma-Ata, 1960, p. 98, 113 of 93-139 (in Russian)
  36. ^ "Bilge Qaghan inscription" line 26. at Türik Bitig
  37. ^ Giolden (1992). p. 202
  38. ^ Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Table 2, Row 61.
  39. ^ Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Information, pp. 113-114.
  40. ^ Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Table 9, Row 43.
  41. ^ Damgaard et al. 2018, Supplementary Table 8, Row 129.
  42. ^ Damgaard et al. 2018, p. 3. "Only one sample here represents Kimak nomads, and it does not show elevated East Asian ancestry."

SourcesEdit