Young Mania Rating Scale
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The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), developed by Vincent E Ziegler and popularised by Robert Young, is an eleven-item multiple choice diagnostic questionnaire which psychiatrists use to measure the severity of manic episodes in children and young adults. The scale was originally developed for use in the evaluation of adult patients with bipolar disorder, but has since been modified for use in pediatric patients. The scale is widely used by professionals and researchers.
A similar scale was later developed to allow clinicians to interview parents about their children's symptoms, in order to ascertain a better diagnosis of mania in children. This parent version (P-YMRS) can be completed by a parent or a teacher to determine whether a child should receive further evaluation from a psychologist or psychiatrist. Clinical studies have demonstrated the reliability and validity of the parent version of the scale, which has been found to provide “clinically meaningful information about mood disorders in youth." The P-YMRS does succeed in identifying most cases of childhood bipolar disorder, and it has an extremely high false positive rate.
- Young RC, Biggs JT, Ziegler VE, Meyer DA (November 1978). "A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity". British Journal of Psychiatry. 133 (5): 429–35. doi:10.1192/bjp.133.5.429. PMID 728692.
- Gracious BL, Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, Calabrese JR (November 2002). "Discriminative validity of a parent version of the Young Mania Rating Scale". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 41 (11): 1350–9. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.198.9176. doi:10.1097/00004583-200211000-00017. PMID 12410078.
- Marchand WR, Clark SC, Wirth L, Simon C (March 2005). "Validity of the parent young mania rating scale in a community mental health setting". Psychiatry. 2 (3): 31–35. PMC 3004712. PMID 21179627.
- Online version of P-YMRS
- "Parent Version of the Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS)" (PDF). The Balanced Mind: Parent Network. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Parent Version of the Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS) Instructions" (PDF). Hawaii Medical Service Association. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- EffectiveChildTherapy.Org information on bipolar disorders