Yíng (Chinese: ) is an ancient Chinese surname. It was the noble house name of the Qin state during the Eastern Zhou dynasty, and the royal name of the subsequent Qin dynasty. Yíng Zheng was the first emperor of the unified Chinese empire.

Ying
Language(s)Chinese
Origin
Language(s)Old Chinese
DerivationShaohao (少昊)
Gaoyao (皋陶)
Boyi (伯益)
Gaoyang (高揚)
Feizi (非子)
Ying Zheng (嬴政)
MeaningBe Full (嬴)
Other names
Variant form(s)Young/Yong/Yang/Wang
Cognate(s)Jin (Chinese surname)
Jin (Korean surname)
Qin (surname)
Xu (surname)
Zhao (surname)
Derivative(s)Ing/In/Yin
See alsoQin (state)
Southern Qi
Northern Qi
Former Qin

Ying was one of the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity" (), along with (), Yáo (), (), Yún (), Gui () and Rèn (), though some sources quote () as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as frequently occurring surnames, while Ji can still be seen occasionally. In the present day, the Ying surname is shared by less than 1000 people in Mainland China, and is overall the 1520th-most common surname.[1] In 2019, it was found that only exactly two people in Taiwan still had this surname.[2]

There are however 14 clan names in China derived from the same ancestral name Yíng. Zhao, one of the most common Chinese surnames, is one such kind cadet surnames that descended from the Yíng name.

The origin of Yíng familyEdit

Shaohao had a child Gaoyao, (皋陶). Gaoyao had a child, Boyi (伯益). Boyi (伯益) was in charge of flood control and got the surname Yíng (嬴), in the early Xia Dynasty. Yu the Great granted state of Dengfeng to the son of Boyi (伯益). This became the State of Yíng (英). Other children of Boyi (伯益) became the feudal lord of Liu state (六), and Xu state (徐), by order of Yu the Great. Later, the Yíng (赢) tribe was founded in the state of Yíng (英), and the Liu (六) in, Xu (徐) in Henan.[3]

The Yíng tribe were powerful feudal lords at the end of the Shang Dynasty period. Feilian (蜚廉) of the Yíng (皋) family was the General and feudal lord under King Zhou of Shang. After the fall of the Shang Dynasty, the Yíng tribe moved to Shanxi and Gansu. [4]

The Yíng (皋) family's Feizi (非子, Biza) received Qin County (秦邑) in Shanxi from King Xiao of Zhou, thereby beginning the Qin Dynasty lineage.

The Bai people, of the old Chinese Yíng, the Xu people, the Qiang people, and some nomad tribes were found in the area of the Qin (state). Also, in the Qin (state), at the time of Duke Mu of Qin, the Xirong people joined the Qin (state), by way of service in/with the army of Qin (state). The Yíng royal family of Qin (state) got various surnames from many surname of their Citizens.

From the time of Duke Zhuang of Qin, Longxi County in Gansu and the surrounding territory was part of the Qin (state). It merged into the territory of the Xiongnu, after the fall of the Qin Dynasty; although citizens of the Yíng family remained in Longxi of Gansu.

Evolution of the Yíng clanEdit

Hata clan (秦氏) – Japan
太秦公, 秦長連, 秦野, 秦人, 秦川, 秦上, 秦下, 秦內, 秦井, 秦多, 秦當, 秦佐,秦冠, 秦前, 秦黨, 秦原, 秦部, 秦許, 秦常, 秦勝, 秦人部, 秦川邊, 秦大藏, 秦小宅, 秦井手, 秦中家, 秦田村, 秦長田, 秦物集, 秦泉寺, 秦高橋, 秦達布, 秦佐此佐...
Qin clan (秦氏), other Qin clans
Liang clan (梁氏)
Yíng ancestral(嬴姓)– Royal house of Qin (state), Imperial house of Qin dynasty
Zhao clan (趙氏) - Imperial house of Song dynasty
Zhao clan (趙氏) – Royal house of Zhao (state)
Other Zhao clans
Bó clan (伯氏)
The clans of Lian (廉), Xu (徐), Jiang (江), Huang (黄), Ma (馬), Ge (葛), Gu (谷), Miào (繆), Zhong (鍾), Fei (費), and Qu (瞿)

'Yíng' pronunciation in MandarinEdit

Surname, YíngEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "嬴姓的来源 嬴氏的姓氏源流-姓氏大全-百家姓周易起名".
  2. ^ https://www.ris.gov.tw/documents/data/5/2/107namestat.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ Chinese wikipedia article 伯益
  4. ^ Sima Qian. 秦本纪 [Annals of Qin]. Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). guoxue.com. Retrieved 7 May 2012.