Wuchiapingian

In the geologic timescale, the Wuchiapingian or Wujiapingian (from Chinese: 吴家坪; pinyin: Wújiāpíng; lit. 'Wu Family Flatland"' in the Liangshan area of Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province[4]) is an age or stage of the Permian. It is also the lower or earlier of two subdivisions of the Lopingian Epoch or Series. The Wuchiapingian spans the time between 259.1 and 254.14 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Capitanian and followed by the Changhsingian.[5]

Wuchiapingian
259.1 ± 0.5 – 254.14 ± 0.07 Ma
Kamsdorf section.jpg
Wuchiapingian aged stratigraphic succession including the Kupferschiefer, Kamsdorf mine near Saalfeld, Thuringia, Germany
Chronology
Etymology
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionFAD of the Conodont Clarkina postbitteri postbitteri
Lower boundary GSSPPenglaitan Section, Laibin, Guangxi, China
23°41′43″N 109°19′16″E / 23.6953°N 109.3211°E / 23.6953; 109.3211
GSSP ratified2004[2]
Upper boundary definitionMeishan, Zhejiang, China
Upper boundary GSSPFAD of the Conodont Clarkina wangi
31°04′55″N 119°42′23″E / 31.0819°N 119.7064°E / 31.0819; 119.7064
GSSP ratified2005[3]

Regional stages with which the Wuchiapingian is coeval or overlaps include the Djulfian or Dzhulfian, Longtanian, Rustlerian, Saladoan, and Castilian.[6]

Stratigraphic definitionsEdit

The Wuchiapingian was first used in 1962, when the Lopingian Series of southwestern China was divided in the Changhsingian and Wuchiapingian Formations. In 1973 the Wuchiapingian was first used as a chronostratigraphic unit (i.e. a stage, as opposed to a formation, which is a lithostratigraphic unit).[7]

The base of the Wuchiapingian Stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic record where the conodont species Clarkina postbitteri postbitteri first appears. A global reference profile for this boundary (a GSSP) is located near Laibin in the Chinese province of Guangxi.[8]

The top of the Wuchiapingian (the base of the Changhsingian) is at the first appearance of conodont species Clarkina wangi.

The Wuchiapingian contains two ammonite biozones: that of the genus Araxoceras and that of the genera Roadoceras and Doulingoceras.

BiodiversityEdit

An extinction pulse occurred during the Wuchiapingian; faunas were recovering when another larger extinction pulse, the Permian–Triassic extinction event devastated life.[9]

Wuchiapingian lifeEdit

ChondrichthyansEdit

Chondrichthyes of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Greenland a eugeneodontid holocephalian
 
Janassa (left, background) and Menaspis (right)
Carboniferous to Early Triassic Greenland a eugeneodontid holocephalian
Lopingian Germany a neoselachian elasmobranch
Carboniferous to Lopingian Germany, Pakistan, Greenland, United States a petalodontiform holocephalian
Lopingian Germany a holocephalian
Lopingian Greenland a eugeneodontid holocephalian
Lopingian Germany

ActinopterygiansEdit

Actinopterygii of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Germany, England A neopterygian, possibly a semionotiform
Carboniferous to Lopingian Germany, England A non-neopterygian
Lopingian Greenland A non-neopterygian
Lopingian Germany, England A bobasatraniiform non-neopterygian
Lopingian Germany, England A palaeonsicid non-neopterygian. One of the most common ray-fins of the late Permian
Carboniferous to Lopingian Germany, England A non-neopterygian
Lopingian to Middle Triassic Germany A non-neopterygian
Permian Russia A non-neopterygian

CoelacanthsEdit

Actinistia of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Permian Germany, England The first described coelacanth
 
Coelacanthus (foreground)

†TemnospondylsEdit

Temnospondyli of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Russia A dvinosaurian temnospondyl amphibian.
Inta Formation, Russia A basal temnospondyl amphibian, possibly an archegosauroid.
Beaufort Group, South Africa A genus of stereospondyl amphibian in the family Rhinesuchidae.
Tanzania, Africa A large armoured basal stereospondyl amphibian.
Malawi, Africa A genus of stereospondyl amphibian in the family Rhinesuchidae.
Karoo Supergroup, South Africa A species of stereospondyl amphibian in the family Rhinesuchidae.

†ChroniosuchiansEdit

Chroniosuchia of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Guadalupian to Lopingian Russia A reptiliomorph
Shangshihezi Formation, Henan, China A species of bystrowianid reptiliomorph.
Lopingian Russia A reptiliomorph

†SeymouriamorphsEdit

Seymouriamorpha of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Russia A seymouriamorph reptiliomorph
Russia A seymouriamorph reptiliomorph

†ProcolophonomorphsEdit

Procolophonomorpha of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Morocco A pareiasaurid parareptile
Lopingian Russia A nycteroleterid parareptile
Lopingian to Early Triassic South Africa An owenettid parareptile
Lopingian Kupferschiefer, Germany A dubious pareiasaurid parareptile
Lopingian South Africa A pareiasaurid parareptile
Lopingian to Early Triassic South Africa, Brazil, Antarctica A procolophonid parareptile
Lopingian Russia A procolophonid parareptile

EureptilesEdit

Eureptilia of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian South Africa A late surviving, yet rather basal, captorhinid reptile

DiapsidsEdit

Diapsida of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Madagascar, Germany, England A gliding weigeltisaurid reptile
Kupferschiefer sediments, Germany A gliding weigeltisaurid reptile.
Germany and England A gliding weigeltisaurid reptile.
ArchosauromorphsEdit
Archosauromorpha of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Usili Formation, Songea District, southern Tanzania An early archosauromorph, possibly the most basal one known.
Late Capitanian? - Wuchiapingian Russia An archosauromorph reptile
Lopingian England, Germany An early basal archosauromorph reptile

SynapsidsEdit

TherapsidsEdit

Therapsida of the Wuchiapingian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lopingian Karoo Basin, South Africa A charassognathid cynodont
Lopingian Karoo Basin, South Africa and Zambia A gorgonopsian therapsid
Lopingian, Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone, Teekloof Formation Karoo Basin, South Africa A charassognathid cynodont
Lopingian, Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone; Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Karoo Basin, South Africa and Zambia A dicynodont therapsid
Lopingian, Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Karoo Basin, South Africa and Zambia A gorgonopsian therapsid
Lopingian South Africa A basal dicynodont therapsid
Lopingian South Africa A dicynodont therapsid
Lopingian Zambia, South Africa A dicynodont therapsid
Lopingian South Africa A dicynodont therapsid
Lopingian Brazil, India, South Africa A dicynodont therapsid
Lopingian Mildenhalls, Fort Beaufort; Karoo Basin, Beaufort West, both in South Africa, possibly Chiweta Beds, Malawi A gorgonopsian therapsid
Lopingian South Africa A biarmosuchian therapsid
Lopingian South Africa A biarmosuchian therapsid
Guadalupian to Lopingian South Africa A gorgonopsian therapsid
Lopingian Madumabisa Mudstone Formation, Zambia A charassognathid cynodont
Lopingian South Africa, Tanzania A gorgonopsian therapsid
Lopingian Usili Formation, Tanzania A gorgonopsian therapsid
Lopingian Usili Formation, Tanzania A gorgonopsian therapsid
Lopingian South Africa A dicynodont therapsid

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. ^ Jin, Yugan; Shen, Shuzhong; Henderson, Charles; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yue; Cao, Changqun; Shang, Qinghua (December 2006). "The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the boundary between the Capitanian and Wuchiapingian Stage (Permian)" (PDF). Episodes. 29: 253–262. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  3. ^ Jin, Yugan; Wang, Yue; Henderson, Charles; Wardlaw, Bruce; Shen, Shuzhong; Cao, Changqun (September 2006). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian)". Episodes. 29 (3): 175–182. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2006/v29i3/003. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  4. ^ "陕西汉中梁山吴家坪灰岩的再研究 (Restudies on the Wujiaping Limestone Liangshan of Hanzhong, Shaanxi)". Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  5. ^ Gradstein, F. M.; Ogg, J. G. & Smith, A. G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press
  6. ^ "Wuchiapingian". GeoWhen Database, International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). Retrieved 4 March 2010.
  7. ^ Kanmera, Kametoshi; and Nakazawa, Keiji, 1973, Permian-Triassic relationships and faunal changes in the eastern Tethys, in Logan, A.; and Hills, L. V.; eds.; The Permian and Triassic Systems and their mutual boundary, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 2, pp. 100–129
  8. ^ Jin, Y.; Shen, S.; Henderson, C. M.; Wang, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.; Cao, C. & Shang, Q.; 2006: The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the boundary between the Capitanian and Wuchiapingian Stage (Permian), Episodes 29(4), pp. 253–262
  9. ^ Sahney, S. & Benton, M.J. (2008). "Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1636): 759–65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898. PMID 18198148.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 23°41′43″N 109°19′16″E / 23.6953°N 109.3211°E / 23.6953; 109.3211