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World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. It examines history from a global perspective. It is not to be confused with comparative history, which, like world history, deals with the history of multiple cultures and nations, but does not do so on a global scale. World history looks for common patterns that emerge across all cultures. World historians use a thematic approach, with two major focal points: integration (how processes of world history have drawn people of the world together) and difference (how patterns of world history reveal the diversity of the human experiences).[1]

Contents

Establishment and parameters of the fieldEdit

Jerry H. Bentley has observed that 'the term world history has never been a clear signifier with a stable referent', and that usage of the term overlaps with universal history, comparative history, global history, big history, macro history, and transnational history, amongst others.[2]

The advent of world history as a distinct academic field of study can be traced to the 1960s, but the pace quickened in the 1980s.[3][4] A key step was the creation of the World History Association and graduate programs at a handful of universities. Over the next decades scholarly publications, professional and academic organizations, and graduate programs in World History proliferated. World History has often displaced Western Civilization in the required curriculum of American high schools and universities, and is supported by new textbooks with a world history approach.

World History attempts to recognise and address two structures that have profoundly shaped professional history-writing:

  1. A tendency to use current nation-states to the set the boundaries and agendas of studies of the past.
  2. A deep legacy of Eurocentric assumptions (found especially, but not only, in Western history-writing).

Thus World History tends to study networks, connections, and systems that cross traditional boundaries of historical study like linguistic, cultural, and national borders. World History is often concerned to explore social dynamics that have led to large-scale changes in human society, such as industrialisation and the spread of capitalism, and to analyse how large-scale changes like these have affected different parts of the world. Like other branches of history-writing in the second half of the twentieth century, World History has a scope far beyond historians' traditional focus on politics, wars, and diplomacy, taking in a panoply of subjects like gender history, social history, cultural history, and environmental history.[5]

OrganizationsEdit

  • The H-World discussion list[6] serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with discussions among scholars, announcements, syllabi, bibliographies and book reviews.
  • The International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (ISCSC) approaches world history from the standpoint of comparative civilizations. Founded at a conference in 1961 in Salzburg, Austria, that was attended by Othmar Anderlie, Pitirim Sorokin, and Arnold J. Toynbee, this is an international association of scholars that publishes a journal, Comparative Civilization Review, and hosts an annual meeting in cities around the world.
  • The Journal of World History has been published quarterly by the World History Association since 1990.[7]
  • The Journal of Global History is a scholarly journal established in 2006 and is published by Cambridge University Press.
  • World History Association (WHA) - Established in the 1980s, the WHA is predominantly an American phenomenon.[8]

HistoryEdit

Pre-modernEdit

The study of world history, as distinct from national history, has existed in many world cultures. However, early forms of world history were not truly global, and were limited to only the regions known by the historian.

In Ancient China, Chinese world history, that of China and the surrounding people of East Asia, was based on the dynastic cycle articulated by Sima Qian in circa 100 BC. Sima Qian's model is based on the Mandate of Heaven. Rulers rise when they united China, then are overthrown when a ruling dynasty became corrupt.[9] Each new dynasty begins virtuous and strong, but then decays, provoking the transfer of Heaven's mandate to a new ruler. The test of virtue in a new dynasty is success in being obeyed by China and neighboring barbarians. After 2000 years Sima Qian's model still dominates scholarship, although the dynastic cycle is no longer used for modern Chinese history.[10]

In Ancient Greece, Herodotus (5th century BC), as founder of Greek historiography,[11] presents insightful and lively discussions of the customs, geography, and history of Mediterranean peoples, particularly the Egyptians. However, his great rival Thucydides promptly discarded Herodotus's all-embracing approach to history, offering instead a more precise, sharply focused monograph, dealing not with vast empires over the centuries but with 27 years of war between Athens and Sparta. In Rome, the vast, patriotic history of Rome by Livy (59 BC-17 AD) approximated Herodotean inclusiveness;[12] Polybius (c.200-c.118 BC) aspired to combine the logical rigor of Thucydides with the scope of Herodotus.[13]

In Central Asia, The Secret History of Mongols is regarded as the single significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan. The Secret History is regarded as a piece of classic literature in both Mongolia and the rest of the world.

In the Middle East, Ala'iddin Ata-Malik Juvayni (1226–1283) was a Persian historian who wrote an account of the Mongol Empire entitled Ta' rīkh-i jahān-gushā (History of the World Conqueror).[14] The standard edition of Juvayni is published under the title Ta' rīkh-i jahān-gushā, ed. Mirza Muhammad Qazwini, 3 vol, Gibb Memorial Series 16 (Leiden and London, 1912–37). An English translation by John Andrew Boyle "The History of the World-Conqueror" was republished in 1997.

Rashīd al-Dīn Fadhl-allāh Hamadānī (1247–1318), was a Persian physician of Jewish origin, polymathic writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language, often considered a landmark in intercultural historiography and a key document on the Ilkhanids (13th and 14th century).[15] His encyclopedic knowledge of a wide range of cultures from Mongolia to China to the Steppes of Central Eurasia to Persia, the Arabic-speaking lands, and Europe, provide the most direct access to information on the late Mongol era. His descriptions also highlight the manner in which the Mongol Empire and its emphasis on trade resulted in an atmosphere of cultural and religious exchange and intellectual ferment, resulting in the transmission of a host of ideas from East to West and vice versa.

One Muslim scholar, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1409) broke with traditionalism and offered a model of historical change in Muqaddimah, an exposition of the methodology of scientific history. Ibn Khaldun focused on the reasons for the rise and fall of civilization, arguing that the causes of change are to be sought in the economic and social structure of society. His work was largely ignored in the Muslim world.[16] Otherwise the Muslim, Chinese and Indian intellectuals held fast to a religious traditionalism, leaving them unprepared to advise national leaders on how to confront the European intrusion into Asia after 1500 AD.

Early modernEdit

During the Renaissance in Europe, history was written about states or nations. The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Voltaire described the history of certain ages that he considered important, rather than describing events in chronological order. History became an independent discipline. It was not called philosophia historiae anymore, but merely history (historia).Voltaire, in the 18th century, attempted to revolutionize the study of world history. First, Voltaire concluded that the traditional study of history was flawed. The Christian Church, one of the most powerful entities in his time, had presented a framework for studying history. Voltaire, when writing History of Charles XII (1731) and The Age of Louis XIV (1751), instead choose to focus economics, politics and culture.[17] These aspects of history were mostly unexplored by his contemporaries and would each develop into their own sections of world history. Above all else, Voltaire regarded truth as the most essential part of recording world history. Nationalism and religion only subtracted from objective truth, so Voltaire freed himself for their influence when he recorded history.[18]

Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) in Italy wrote Scienza nuva seconda (The New Science) in 1725, which argued history as the expression of human will and deeds. He thought that men are historical entities and that human nature changes over time. Each epoch should be seen as a whole in which all aspects of culture—art, religion, philosophy, politics, and economics—are interrelated (a point developed later by Oswald Spengler). Vico showed that myth, poetry, and art are entry points to discovering the true spirit of a culture. Vico outlined a conception of historical development in which great cultures, like Rome, undergo cycles of growth and decline. His ideas were out of fashion during the Enlightenment, but influenced the Romantic historians after 1800.

A major theoretical foundation for world history was given by German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel, who saw the modern Prussian state as the latest (though often confused with the highest) stage of world development.

G.W.F. Hegel developed three lenses through which he believed world history could be viewed. Documents produced during a historical period, such as journal entries and contractual agreements, were considered by Hegel to be part of Original History. These documents are produced by a person enveloped within a culture, making them conduits of vital information but also limited in their contextual knowledge. Documents which pertain to Hegel’s Original History are classified by modern historians as primary sources.[19]

Reflective History, Hegel’s second lens, are documents written with some temporal distance separating the event which is discussed in the academic writing. What limited this lens, according to Hegel, was the imposition of the writers own cultural values and views on the historical event. This criticism of Reflective History was later formalized by Anthropologists Franz Boa and coined as Cultural relativism by Alain Locke. Both of these lenses were considered to be partially flawed by Hegel.[20]

Hegel termed the lens which he advocated to view world history through as Philosophical History. In order to view history through this lens, one must analyze events, civilizations, and periods objectively. When done in this fashion, the historian can then extract the prevailing theme from their studies. This lens differs from the rest because it is void of any cultural biases and takes a more analytical approach to history. World History can be a broad topic, so focusing on extracting the most valuable information from certain periods may be the most beneficial approach. This third lens, as did Hegel’s definitions of the other two, affected the study of history in the early modern period and our contemporary period.[21]

Another early modern historian was Adam Ferguson. Ferguson’s main contribution to the study of world history was his An Essay on the History of Civil Society (1767).[22] According to Ferguson, world history was a combination of two forms of history. One was natural history; the aspects of our world which god created. The other, which was more revolutionary, was social history. For him, social history was the progress humans made towards fulfilling God’s plan for humanity. He believed that progress, which could be achieved through individuals pursuing commercial success, would bring us closer to a perfect society; but we would never reach one.[23] However, he also theorized that a complete dedication to commercial success could lead to societal collapse—like what happened in Rome—because people would lose morality. Through this lens, Ferguson viewed world history as humanities struggle to reach an ideal society.[24]

Henry Home, Lord Kames was a philosopher during the Enlightenment and contributed to the study or world history. In his major historical work, Sketches on the History of Man, Home’s outlined the four stages of human history which he observed.[25] The first and most primitive stage was small hunter-gatherer groups. Then, in order to form larger groups, humans transitioned into the second stage when they began to domesticate animals. The third stage was the development of agriculture. This new technology established trade and higher levels of cooperation amongst sizable groups of people. With the gathering of people into agricultural villages, laws and social obligations needed to be developed so a form of order could be maintained. The fourth, and final stage, involved humans moving into market towns and seaports where agriculture was not the focus. Instead, commerce and other forms of labor arouse in a society. By defining the stages of human history, Homes influenced his successors. He also contributed to the development of other studies such as sociology and anthropology.[26]

ContemporaryEdit

World history became a popular genre in the 20th century with universal history. In the 1920s, several best-sellers dealt with the history of the world, including surveys The Story of Mankind (1921) by Hendrik Willem van Loon and The Outline of History (1918) by H.G. Wells. Influential writers who have reached wide audiences include H. G. Wells, Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Pitirim Sorokin, Carroll Quigley, Christopher Dawson,[27] and Lewis Mumford. Scholars working the field include Eric Voegelin,[28] William Hardy McNeill and Michael Mann.[29] With evolving technologies such as dating methods and surveying laser technology called LiDAR, contemporary historians have access to knew information which changes how past civilizations are studied.

Spengler's Decline of the West (2 vol 1919–1922) compared nine organic cultures: Egyptian (3400 BC-1200 BC), Indian (1500 BC-1100 BC), Chinese (1300 BC-AD 200), Classical (1100 BC-400 BC), Byzantine (AD 300–1100), Aztec (AD 1300–1500), Arabian (AD 300–1250), Mayan (AD 600–960), and Western (AD 900–1900). His book was a smashing success among intellectuals worldwide as it predicted the disintegration of European and American civilization after a violent "age of Caesarism," arguing by detailed analogies with other civilizations. It deepened the post-World War I pessimism in Europe, and was warmly received by intellectuals in China, India, and Latin America who hoped his predictions of the collapse of European empires would soon come true.[30]

In 1936–1954, Toynbee's ten-volume A Study of History came out in three separate installments. He followed Spengler in taking a comparative topical approach to independent civilizations. Toynbee said they displayed striking parallels in their origin, growth, and decay. Toynbee rejected Spengler's biological model of civilizations as organisms with a typical life span of 1,000 years. Like Sima Qian, Toynbee explained decline as due to their moral failure. Many readers rejoiced in his implication (in vols. 1–6) that only a return to some form of Catholicism could halt the breakdown of western civilization which began with the Reformation. Volumes 7–10, published in 1954, abandoned the religious message, and his popular audience slipped away, while scholars picked apart his mistakes.,[31]

McNeill wrote The Rise of the West (1963) to improve upon Toynbee by showing how the separate civilizations of Eurasia interacted from the very beginning of their history, borrowing critical skills from one another, and thus precipitating still further change as adjustment between traditional old and borrowed new knowledge and practice became necessary. McNeill took a broad approach organized around the interactions of peoples across the Earth. Such interactions have become both more numerous and more continual and substantial in recent times. Before about 1500, the network of communication between cultures was that of Eurasia. The term for these areas of interaction differ from one world historian to another and include world-system and ecumene. Whatever it is called, the importance of these intercultural contacts has begun to be recognized by many scholars.[32]

History educationEdit

United StatesEdit

T. Walter Wallbank and Alastair M. Taylor co-authored Civilization Past & Present, the first world-history textbook published in the United States (1942). With additional authors, this very successful work went through numerous editions up to the first decade of the twenty-first century. According to the Golden Anniversary edition of 1992, the ongoing objective of Civilization Past & Present "was to present a survey of world cultural history, treating the development and growth of civilization not as a unique European experience but as a global one through which all the great culture systems have interacted to produce the present-day world. It attempted to include all the elements of history – social, economic, political, religious, aesthetic, legal, and technological."[33] In college curricula of the United States, world history became a popular replacement for courses on Western Civilization. Professors Patrick Manning, previously of Northeastern University and now at the University of Pittsburgh's World History Center; and Ross E. Dunn at San Diego State are leaders in promoting innovative teaching methods.[34]

In schools of architecture in the U.S., the National Architectural Accrediting Board now requires that schools teach history that includes a non-west or global perspective. This reflects a decade-long effort to move past the standard Euro-centric approach that had dominated the field.[35]

Recent themesEdit

In recent years, the relationship between African and world history has shifted rapidly from one of antipathy to one of engagement and synthesis. Reynolds (2007) surveys the relationship between African and world histories, with an emphasis on the tension between the area studies paradigm and the growing world-history emphasis on connections and exchange across regional boundaries. A closer examination of recent exchanges and debates over the merits of this exchange is also featured. Reynolds sees the relationship between African and world history as a measure of the changing nature of historical inquiry over the past century.[36]

Marxian theory of historyEdit

The Marxist theory of historical materialism claims the history of the world is fundamentally determined by the material conditions at any given time – in other words, the relationships which people have with each other in order to fulfil basic needs such as feeding, clothing and housing themselves and their families.[37] Overall, Marx and Engels claimed to have identified five successive stages of the development of these material conditions in Western Europe.[38]

The theory divides the history of the world into the following periods:[39][40][41][42][43] Primitive communism; Slave society; Feudalism; Capitalism; and Socialism.

Regna Darnell and Frederic Gleach argue that, in the Soviet Union, the Marxian theory of history was the only accepted orthodoxy, and stifled research into other schools of thought on history.[44] However, adherents of Marx's theories argue that Stalin distorted Marxism.[45]

World historiansEdit

  • Christopher Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World: Global Connections and Comparisons, 1780–1914 (London, 2004)
  • Jerry Bentley, (1949-2012) Founder and editor of the Journal of World History
  • Jacques Bertin, Atlas historique universel. Panorama de l'histoire du monde, Geneva, Minerva, 1997
  • Fernand Braudel, (1903-1985) Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme (Paris, 1973, 3 vols.); english translation, Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Centuries, translated by Siân Reynolds, 3 vols. (1979)
  • Philip D. Curtin (1922-2009), The World and the West: The European Challenge and the Overseas Response in the Age of Empire. (2000) 308 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-77135-1. online review
  • Christopher Dawson (1889-1970) Religion and the Rise of Western Culture (1950) excerpt and text search
  • Will Durant (1885-1981) and Ariel Durant (1898-1981); Story of Civilization(1935-1975).
  • Felipe Fernandez-Armesto (b.1950), "Millennium" (1995), "Civilizations" (2000), "The World" (2007).
  • Francis Fukuyama (1952– ) The End of History and the Last Man (1992)[46]
  • Peter Haugen, professor of the University of Wisconsin; writer of World History for Dummies
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1830), philosopher of world history[47]
  • Patrick Manning, Navigating World History: Historians Create a Global Past (2003)[48]
  • William Hardy McNeill (born 1917);[49] see especially The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (1963)
  • Robert McNeill and William H. McNeill. The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (2014) excerpt
  • Carroll Quigley (1910-1977), The Evolution of Civilizations (1961), Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time (1966), Weapons Systems and Political Stability: A History (1983)
  • Pitirim Sorokin (1889–1968), Russian-American macrosociology; Social and Cultural Dynamics (4 vol., 1937–41)[50]
  • Oswald Spengler (1880-1936), German; Decline of the West (1918–22) vol 1 online; vol 2 online; excerpt and text search, abridged edition
  • Peter Stearns, (1936- ) USA; World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity, 7th ed. (2009); Encyclopedia of World History, 6th ed. (200pp)
  • Luc-Normand Tellier, Canadian; Urban World History, PUQ, (2009), 650 pages; online edition
  • Arnold J. Toynbee, British; A Study of History (1934–61);[51] see especially A Study of History.
  • Eric Voegelin (1901–1985) Order and History (1956–85)[52]
  • Immanuel Wallerstein, World-systems theory

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ J. Laurence Hare, and Jack Wells, "Promising the World: Surveys, Curricula, and the Challenge of Global History," History Teacher, 48 (Feb. 2015) pp: 371-88.
  2. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, 'The Task of World History', in The Oxford Handbook of World History, ed. by Jerry H. Bentley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 1-14, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199235810.013.0001 (p. 1).
  3. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, 'The Task of World History', in The Oxford Handbook of World History, ed. by Jerry H. Bentley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 1-14, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199235810.013.0001 (p. 2).
  4. ^ Peter Gran (28 February 2009). The Rise of the Rich: A New View of Modern World History. Syracuse University Press. p. XVI. ISBN 978-0-8156-3171-2. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  5. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, 'The Task of World History', in The Oxford Handbook of World History, ed. by Jerry H. Bentley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 1-14, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199235810.013.0001 (p. 2).
  6. ^ see H-World
  7. ^ see JWH Website Archived 2008-05-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ History Association - Mission
  9. ^ Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian: Qin Dynasty (3rd ed. 1995) excerpt and text search; Burton Watson, Ssu-ma Ch'ien: Grand Historian of China (1958)
  10. ^ S. Y. Teng, "Chinese Historiography in the Last Fifty Years," The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Feb., 1949), pp. 131–156 in JSTOR
  11. ^ K.H. Waters, Herodotus the Historian (1985)
  12. ^ Patrick G. Walsh, Livy: His Historical Aims and Methods (1961)
  13. ^ Frank W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, (3 vols. 1957–82)
  14. ^ History of the World Conqueror by Ala Ad Din Ata Malik Juvaini, translated by John Andrew Boyle, Harvard University Press 1958, Project Gutenberg on line edition
  15. ^ Elliot, H. M. (Henry Miers), Sir; John Dowson. "10. Jámi'u-t Tawáríkh, of Rashid-al-Din". The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3.). London : Trübner & Co.. https://archive.org/stream/cu31924073036737#page/n15/mode/2up.
  16. ^ Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History ed. by N. J. Dawood, Bruce Lawrence, and Franz Rosenthal (2004) excerpt and text search
  17. ^ "Voltaire". Biography. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  18. ^ Shank, J.B. (2015), Zalta, Edward N., ed., "Voltaire", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2015 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2018-07-24
  19. ^ Little, Daniel (2017), Zalta, Edward N., ed., "Philosophy of History", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2017 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2018-07-24
  20. ^ Nicholas, Mowad (2010). The Soul and the Body in Hegel's Anthropology. Loyola University Chicago.
  21. ^ McCabe, David (1998). "Hegel and the Idea of Philosophical History". History of Philosophy Quarterly. 15 (3): 369–388. JSTOR 27744789.
  22. ^ Ferguson, Adam. An Essay on the History of Civil Society. (1767).
  23. ^ Hamowy, Ronald (1969). TEE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF ADAM FERGUSON A COMMENTARY CN HIS ESSAY CK THE HISTORY OF CIVIL SOCIETY. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago.
  24. ^ "Adam Ferguson". www.d.umn.edu. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  25. ^ "Henry Home, Lord Kames". www.hetwebsite.net. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  26. ^ "Kames on Progress and Providence - Online Library of Liberty". oll.libertyfund.org. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  27. ^ Bradley J. Birzer, Sanctifying the World: The Augustinian Life and Mind of Christopher Dawson (2007)
  28. ^ Michael P. Federici, Eric Voegelin: The Restoration of Order (2002)
  29. ^ Michael Mann, The Sources of Social Power: Volume 1, A History of Power from the Beginning to AD 1760 (1986) excerpt and text search
  30. ^ Neil McInnes, "The Great Doomsayer: Oswald Spengler Reconsidered." National Interest 1997 (48): 65–76. Fulltext: Ebsco
  31. ^ William H. McNeill, Arnold J. Toynbee a Life (1989)
  32. ^ William H. McNeill, "The Changing Shape of World History." History and Theory 1995 34(2): 8–26.
  33. ^ Wallbank, T. Walter; et al. (1992). Civilization Past & Present. New York: HarperCollins. pp. xxv. ISBN 978-0-673-38867-4.
  34. ^ Patrick Manning, Navigating World History: Historians Create a Global Past (2003); Ross E. Dunn, ed., The New World History: A Teacher's Companion. (2000).
  35. ^ See Points 8 and 9. http://www.naab.org/adaview.aspx?pageid=120
  36. ^ Jonathan T. Reynolds, "Africa and World History: from Antipathy to Synergy." History Compass 2007 5(6): 1998–2013. ISSN 1478-0542 Fulltext: [1. History Compass]
  37. ^ See, in particular, Marx and Engels, The German Ideology
  38. ^ Marx makes no claim to have produced a master key to history. Historical materialism is not "an historico-philosophic theory of the marche generale imposed by fate upon every people, whatever the historic circumstances in which it finds itself" (Marx, Karl: Letter to editor of the Russian paper Otetchestvennye Zapiskym, 1877). His ideas, he explains, are based on a concrete study of the actual conditions that pertained in Europe.
  39. ^ Marx, Early writings, Penguin, 1975, p. 426.
  40. ^ Charles Taylor, “Critical Notice”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1980), p. 330.
  41. ^ Marx and Engels, The Critique of the Gotha Programme
  42. ^ Marx and Engels, The Civil War in France
  43. ^ Gewirth, Alan (1998). The Community of Rights (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780226288819. Retrieved 2012-12-29. Marxists sometimes distinguish between 'personal property' and 'private property,' the former consisting in consumer goods directly used by the owner, while the latter is private ownership of the major means of production.
  44. ^ Regna Darnell; Frederic Gleach (2007). Histories of Anthropology Annual. U of Nebraska Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0803266636.
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ See revised edition
  47. ^ see Philosophy of History
  48. ^ See excerpt
  49. ^ See McNeill, The Pursuit of Truth: A Historian's Memoir (2005)
  50. ^ B. V. Johnston, Pitirim A. Sorokin an Intellectual Biography (1995)
  51. ^ William H. McNeill, Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life (1990)
  52. ^ Jeffrey C. Herndon, Eric Voegelin and the Problem of Christian Political Order (2007) excerpt and text search

BibliographyEdit

Surveys of world historyEdit

  • Bayly, Christopher Alan. The birth of the modern world, 1780-1914: global connections and comparisons (Blackwell, 2004)
  • Bullet, Richard et al., The Earth and Its Peoples 6th ed. 2 vol, 2014), university textbook
  • Duiker, William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History (2 vol 2006), university textbook
  • Gombrich, Ernst. A Little History of the World (1936 & 1995)
  • Grenville, J.A.S. A History of the World: From the 20th to the 21st Century (2005)
  • McKay, John P. and Bennett D. Hill. A History of World Societies (2 vol. 2011), university textbook
  • McNeill, William H. A World History (1998), University textbook
  • McNeill, William H., Jerry H. Bentley, and David Christian, eds. Berkshire Encyclopedia Of World History (5 vol 2005)
  • Osterhammel, Jürgen. The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (Princeton University Press, 2014), 1167pp
  • Paine, Lincoln. The sea and civilization: a maritime history of the world (Knopf, 2013). Pp. xxxv+ 744. 72 illustrations, 17 maps. excerpt
  • Roberts, J. M. and O. A. Westad. The History of the World (2013)
  • Rosenberg, Emily, et al. eds. A World Connecting: 1870-1945 (2012)
  • Stearns, Peter N. ed. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World: 1750 to the Present (8 vol. 2008)
  • Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History (1998) online edition
  • Szulc, Tad. Then and Now: How the World Has Changed since W.W. II. (1990). 515 p. ISBN 0-688-07558-4; Popular history
  • Tignor, Robert, et al. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart: A History of the World (4th ed, 2 vol. 2013), University textbook
  • Watt, D. C., Frank Spencer, Neville Brown. A History of the World in the Twentieth Century (1967)

Transnational historiesEdit

  • Adam, Thomas. Intercultural Transfers and the Making of the Modern World, 1800-2000: Sources and Contexts (2011)
  • Boon, Marten. "Business Enterprise and Globalization: Towards a Transnational Business History." Business History Review 91.3 (2017): 511-535.
  • Davies, Thomas Richard. NGOs: A new history of transnational civil society (2014).
  • Ember, Carol R. Melvin Ember, and Ian A. Skoggard, eds. Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the world (2004).
  • Iriye, Akira. Global and Transnational History: The Past, Present, and Future (2010), 94pp
  • Iriye, Akira and Pierre-Yves Saunier, eds. The Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History: From the mid-19th century to the present day (2009); 1232pp; 400 entries by scholars.
  • Osterhammel, Jürgen and Niels P. Petersson. Globalization: A Short History (2009)
  • Pieke Frank N., Nyíri Pál, Thunø Mette, and Ceddagno Antonella. Transnational Chinese: Fujianese migrants in Europe (2004)
  • Saunier, Pierre-Yves. Transnational History (2013)

AtlasesEdit

  • Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed. The Times Atlas of World History (1979).
  • Catchpole, Brian. Map History of the Modern World (1982)
  • Darby, H. C., and H. Fullard, eds. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1970)
  • Haywood, John. Atlas of world history (1997) online free
  • Kinder, Hermann and Werner Hilgemann. Anchor Atlas of World History (2 vol. 1978); advanced analytical maps, mostly of Europe
  • O'Brian, Patrick. Atlas of World History (2010). excerpt
  • Rand McNally. Historical atlas of the world (1997) online free
  • Santon, Kate, and Liz McKay, eds. Atlas of World History (2005).

HistoriographyEdit

  • Adas, Michael. Essays on Twentieth-Century History (2010); historiographic essays on world history conceptualizing the "long" 20th century, from the 1870s to the early 2000s.
  • Bentley, Jerry H., ed. The Oxford Handbook of World History (Oxford University Press, 2011)
  • Tinagaran a/Lsivakumar jeremiah john a/l hendry puluthi siva santhiya a/p robert Global and Comparative History Series. (1996)
  • Costello, Paul. World Historians and Their Goals: Twentieth-Century Answers to Modernism (1993).
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