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World League for Freedom and Democracy

  (Redirected from World Anti-Communist League)

The World Anti-Communist League (WACL) was an international non-governmental organization of anti-communist politicians and groups founded in 1966 under the initiative of Chiang Kai-Shek, leader of the Republic of China (Taiwan). It united mostly ultra-right and libertarian people and organisations, and acted with the support of the right-wing authoritarian regimes of East Asia and Latin America. During the Cold War, WACL actively participated from anti-communist and anti-Soviet positions.

World League for Freedom and Democracy
World League for Freedom and Democracy logo.jpg
Logo of the World League for Freedom and Democracy
PredecessorAsian Peoples' Anti-Communist League
Founded atTaipei
Secretary General
Chou Yujen
Yao Eng-chi
Budget (2017)
22 million TWD[1]
Formerly called
World Anti-Communist League

In 1990, the organisation changed its name to World League for Freedom and Democracy (WLFD), but has preserved traditions and former ties. It unites representatives from more than 100 countries, has 8 regional divisions. It is currently a member of the United Nations Department of Public Information and has its headquarters in Taipei, Taiwan.



The WLFD descended from the Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League. To cope with the growing tension around the world, Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan, Elpidio Quirino of the Republic of the Philippines, and Syngman Rhee of the Republic of Korea founded the APACL in Jinhae, the wartime capital city of the Republic of Korea (ROK) on 15 June 1954. Its first general conference was held in that city and was host to advocate and support the causes of anti-communism, anti-totalitarianism as well as anti-authoritarianism.[citation needed] The other participating states, including Vietnam, Thailand, Okinawa, Hong Kong, and Macao, also sent representatives.

World Freedom DayEdit

World Freedom Day
Date23 January
Next time23 January 2020 (2020-01-23)

World Freedom Day (Chinese: 世界自由日; pinyin: Shìjièzìyóurì) is a memorial day celebrated on 23 January in Taiwan and South Korea. The event marks the return of some 22,000 ex-communist war prisoners of the Korean War (1950–1953) to Taiwan, of whom 14,000 Chinese soldiers arrived at Keelung harbor on 23 January 1954, and were given the title "Anti-Communist Martyrs".[2] The Republic of China (ROC) government subsequently declared 23 January as World Freedom Day to honor these soldiers, and created the "Anti-Communist League" (which later became the World League for Freedom and Democracy) to fight communist expansion worldwide. The league is led by President Yao Eng-Chi, a former Kuomintang-MP and Secretary-General Ger Yeong-Kuang, a Professor for political science at National Taiwan University. Every year World Freedom Day Celebrations are held in Taiwan, and the event is attended by both locals and foreign delegates from all over the world. Usually, the president of the ROC delivers a congratulatory message, and cultural performances take place.

Asian Pacific League for Freedom and DemocracyEdit

The Asian Pacific League for Freedom and Democracy (APLFD) was founded in 1954 as the Asian Peoples’ Anti-Communist League in Chinhae, South Korea with the support of the governments of the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan (as the Republic of China).[3] The APLFD is a non-proft international organization for interchanges among the Asians for peace and prosperity of the region.

The APLFD was founded in the same year and under the same international background as the forming of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), or the Manila Pact, did in 1954, when the Second World War was concluded not a long while ago. However, while the SEATO (1954-1977) was sort of an Asian Nato in nature, the APLFD is a people's organization trying to secure peace and prosperity through ideas and convictions and friendship.

Having founded the APACL, the government of the Republic of China prepared to organize the second conference and chose Taipei City as the place to set up the Republic of China Chapter of the APACL on 1 July 1954. Ku Cheng-kang, President of the Chinese Refugees Relief Association of the Republic of China, was designated as the first president of this Chapter. Over the years, successors to the presidency of the Republic of China Chapter are Clement C. P. Chang, Chao Tze-chi, Yao Eng-chi, and Tseng Yung-chuan. As of 2013 the president was Yao Eng-chi, former Vice President of the ROC Legislative Yuan (Parliament) and also Senior Advisor to President of the Republic of China on Taiwan.

World Anti-Communist LeagueEdit

In 1966 the memberships of the APACL had increased to 27, in Asia, Australia, and Africa. At its 12th Conference in Seoul on 3 November 1966, a fifteen-member committee was formed to discuss the expansion of this organization. The committee eventually decided to set up a new anti-communist organization, including the APACL, regional organizations, and an international anti-communist organization. On 7 November 1966, the delegates adopted the “Charter of the World Anti-Communist League” at the plenary session. It also resolved that the Republic of China Chapter was in charge of organizing the first General Conference.

The Charter of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), with 8 chapters and 32 articles, came into effect on 1 April 1967. It stated that the WACL should immediately set up its regional organizations in six regions: Asia (now known as Asian Pacific League for Freedom and Democracy), Middle East (now known as Middle East Solidarity Council), Africa (now known as the African Organization for Freedom and Democracy), and Europe (now known as the European Council for World Freedom), North America (now known as the North American Federation for Freedom and Democracy), and Latin America (now known as the Federation of Latin American Democratic Organization). The organization in the Asian region was the main force to push for the mission of the World League.


To adjust to the worldwide political changes after defeat of Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War and to strive for recruiting more people to join, the WACL held its 22nd General Conference in Brussels, Belgium on 23 July 1990, and the delegates resolved that the organization should be renamed the "World League for Freedom and Democracy" (WLFD). This resolution came into effect on 1 January 1991.

In 21 August 1991, with the new name, the WLFD held its 23rd General Conference in San Jose, Costa Rica. Rafael Angel Calderon Fournier, President of Costa Rica, and vice presidents from six countries in Latin America, gave speeches. The conference passed a resolution to set up the Presidency of League, a new post to highlight the leading center of the WLFD and also to take the responsibility to organize WLFD activities. Chao Tze-chi, President of the Republic of China Chapter of WLFD, was elected as the first President of the WLFD, and re-elected in 1995. U Chae-sung of the ROK was named as the Secretary-General.

On January 19 of 2006, the WLFD adopted its charter amendment in the 34th General Conference. According to the Amendment, the President of the League shall be "the top official of the League" and shall represent the League, and shall supervise the performance and development of the League in compliance with the charter. According to the previous charter of the WLFD, the President of the League shall be "the Leader of the League" and shall represent the League. This person shall supervise the performance and development of the League in compliance with the charter.

According to the Charter of the WLFD, the President of the League shall be elected by and from the members of the Executive Board of the League. The result of the election shall be reported to the General Conference. The President shall hold office for a term of four years and shall be eligible for re-election. In October 2000, all members of the Executive Board approved Yao Eng-chi, President of the WLFD ROC Chapter, as the third President of the League during the Executive Board Meeting in New York City, U.S. The Executive Board also amended the charter to add several positions such as four vice presidents and two deputy secretary-generals. The decision made by the Executive Board was also confirmed by the members at the 31st WLFD General Conference in Taipei, ROC, on 13 January 2001. President Yao Eng-chi was re-elected as President of the League at the 33rd WLFD General Conference in Melbourne, Australia, on 20 December 2003. Ger Yeong-kuang was named as Secretary-General of the League. On August 1 of 2008, Ger resigned and was succeeded by Hsieh Wen-huang, Parliamentary Assistant to Vice President Tseng Yung-chuan of the ROC Legislative Yuan (Parliament). Hsieh resigned; Chou Yujen’s was nominated to replace him on 23 January 2013.


According to the charter, national, regional or international organizations that subscribe to the purposes of the League are eligible for membership. Membership shall consist of Regular Members with voting rights and Associate Members without voting rights. Regular membership shall comprise two categories: 1) An organization dedicated to the cause of freedom and democracy recognized by the Executive Board Committee as representing a country or territory; 2) An international organization dedicated to the cause of freedom and democracy and composed of two or more branches not in the same country. Such an organization may be granted regular membership, provided that any of its branches shall not be accepted as a Regular Member. Youth groups in all parts of the world, dedicated to the cause of freedom and democracy and united in a duly organized body, may be accepted as an international organization. Other organizations dedicated to the cause of freedom and democracy may be accepted as Associate Members.

All Regular Members shall have equal rights and obligations in the League. While a country or territory is represented in the league by one organization, any number of organizations from the same country or territory may be accepted as Associate Members. Associate Members has the same rights and obligation as Regular Members except for voting rights.

Any application for membership shall be submitted to the Secretariat of the league. The Executive Board shall consider the application and make recommendations to the General Conference. Any decision on membership shall be made by majority of the Executive Board members and approved by majority of the Conference.

Asian Pacific League for Freedom and DemocracyEdit

The Asian Pacific League for Freedom and Democracy (APLFD) was formed in 1954 as the Asian Peoples’ Anti-Communist League. The APLFD Secretariat was first established in Saigon, Vietnam in 1957; then the Secretariat moved to Manila in 1964. Three years later, the Secretariat moved back again to Saigon until its fall in 1975. After some compromise and a resolution, the APLFD Secretariat was re-established in Taipei, Taiwan in 1976 where it remains active.[4] In 1983, at its conference in Fiji, it changed its name to the Asian Pacific Democratic League.[4]

The APLFD has 18 member nations including: Australia, Fiji, Guam, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Palau, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan(ROC), Thailand, USA, Vietnam, Laos and Burma. They are for freedom,human rights,humanitarian,prosperity and world peace.

The APLFD holds an annual conference every year. Since its founding, the APLFD has organized its conferences in those leading cities as follows: Chinhae (South Korea), Manila (the Philippines), Saigon (Vietnam), Bangkok (Thailand), Seoul (South Korea), Taipei (Taiwan), Tokyo (Japan), Kyoto (Japan), Quezon City (Philippines), Guam, Honolulu (USA), Perth (Australia), Nadi (Fiji), Nukualofa (Tonga), Koror (Palau), Auckland (New Zealand), Melbourne (Australia), Bangalore (India), Brisbane (Australia), Bali October. 2000(Indonesia), Vancouver (BC, Canada), Santa Clara (California, USA), Portland (Oregon, USA).

The 39th Conference (1993) was held in Melbourne, Australia under the Chairmanship of Bruce Skeggs MP.

The 41st Conference (1995) Conference was held in Bangalore, India. Participants included Chief Minister Ramakrishna Hegde, Ram Jethmalani, Bruce Skeggs and Victor Perton.

The 43rd Conference (1997) was held in Melbourne, Australia under the Chairmanship of Bruce Skeggs MP.

The 44th Conference (1998) was held in Manila, Philippines. Attending the Conference were the representatives of Australia, Republic of China (Taiwan), Guam, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Laos, Palau, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam.[5]

The 45th Conference (1999) was held in Brisbane, Australia under the Chairmanship of Bruce Skeggs MP.

The 46th Conference 4–7 November 2000 was held in Sheraton Nusa Dua, Bali International Convention Centre,Denpasar,Bali,For the First Times in Indonesia,after Soeharto Fall, Under the Chairmanship of Senator & MP HM HUSSEIN NARO Temporary CHAIRMAN Of SENATE & PARLIAMENT INDONESIA 1987, SPECIAL ADVISOR INDONESIA DELEGATES to UNITED NATIONS OCT 1988 Led By Minister of Foreign Affairs Ali Alatas, After 18 Years APLFD membership following his father Vice Speaker Indonesia Parliament DR HJ NARO SH since 1973 which received DR(HC) from CHINA ACADEMY and Appointed as CHINA AIRLINES SPECIAL ADVISOR, open the Taipei - Jakarta Route also Jakarta-Jeddah and make NARO DYNASTY and Secretary General Prof Peng Ming Min,Senior Advisor to the President Chen Sui Bian After elected & received transfer Chairmanship from Bruce Skeggs MP and Ambassador Pao Tai Tien from KMT as Secretary General, with Theme PEACE,PROGRESS AND PROSPERITY in the MILLENNIUM, Secretary General Prof Peng Ming Min President Candidate from DPP made Statement that Bali Conference was Successful under Chairman SENATOR & MP HM HUSSEIN NARO, President ROC Chen Sui Bian send his message and read by Ambassador Lin, When September 11 in New York was happen Chairman SENATOR & MP HM HUSSEIN NARO invited by WLFD Executive Board attend the Meeting but unavailable to go there, but SENATOR & MP HM HUSSEIN NARO send his Condolences to US President George W Bush

The 47th Conference November 2001 was held in Hyatt Regency Auckland New Zealand after received transfer Chairmanship from Senator & MP HM HUSSEIN NARO to Stewart Rundle Lead the League witness by Phil Goff Minister of Foreign Affair of New Zealand until 2002, SENATOR & MP HM HUSSEIN NARO Remarks Condemn Terrorism and it is Impossible to Develop Democracy under Terroris Threatening

The 50th Annual Conference (2004) was held in Santa Clara, California under the banner question “Rethinking Freedom and Democracy in a Rapidly Changing World.”

The 2010 APLFD General Conference was held in Korea with the slogan, "A New Vision for Progress in Freedom and Democracy." [6]

Distinguished spearks at the APLFD meetings, among others, included: President Carlos P. Garcia of the Philippines (1961); Mr. Nobusuke Kishi (1962, as former Prime Minister of Japan); General Jesus Vargas (1969, as Secretary General of SEATO); Mr.Kim Jong-Pil (1972, as Prime Minister of South Korea); President Fidel V. Ramos (1990, as Defence Secretary of the Philippines); Justice A.C. Ahmadi (1995, as Chief Justice of India); Mr. Don McKinnon (1996, as Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand); Mr. Bob Halverson (1997, as Speaker of Parliament of Australia); President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (1998, as Vice Prescient of the Philippines); Mr.Phil Goff (2001, as Foreign Minister of New Zealand); Mr. Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi (2005, as Vice President of Fiji); Mr. Winston Peters (2006, as Foreign Minister of New Zealand); Mr. Eduardo R. Ermita (2009, as Executive Secretary of the Office of the President of the Philippines).

And under the auspices of the APLFD Secretariat, a forum named the Asia Pacific Round Table was formed in 2003. The round table forum is a meeting for a small group of professionals from various fields from Asia Pacific countries for more understandings on the latest development in the region. In recent years, the development of ASEAN in the economic area was a major theme of the forum.

Since 2003, the Asia Pacific Round Table meeting has been held in Seattle,USA (2003); Sapporo,Japan,(2004); Johannesburg,South Africa (2005); Nagoya,Japan (2006); Brussels,Belgium (2007); Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2010); Phnom Penh,Cambodia (2011); and Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam (2012).

Republic of China ChapterEdit

The Republic of China (ROC) Chapter is one of the founding members of the WLFD and also the leading player as a national chapter that helps the WLFD to advocate the freedom movement. This chapter consists more than 300 civil organizations from all walks of society in the Republic of China such as national political parties, city councils or county assemblies, academies, cultural institutions, religious groups, agricultural units, labor unions, businessmen unions, youth groups, Chinese compatriots unions, and women groups. The ROC Chapter is in charge of major decisions, place to hold conferences, and activity arrangements. The ROC Chapter was not only one of the founding members of the League, but also the leading force to push for the WLFD missions. Yao Eng-chi, former Vice President of the ROC Legislative Yuan (Parliament) and also President of the World League for Freedom and Democracy, is the current President of the ROC Chapter.

Chapters in EuropeEdit

The number of members in Denmark is unknown, but several politicians have or have been connected to the organization. Progress Party leader Pia Kjærsgaard participated in 1988 as WACL's guest at the organization's congress in Taipei. "It is a worldwide organization that clearly aims to combat communism worldwide. This good purpose, of course, gives me my full support, and I therefore had the opportunity to speak during the congress for an invited circle", said Pia Kjærsgaard in the magazine Progress.[7] The Danish WACL leader has been municipal politician Erik Dissing.

The French chapter was headed by Suzanne Labin. The president of the German section as of 2012 has been Axel Fischer.[8]

In Sweden, a department of WACL has been established since 1967. The Swedish organization has been characterized by strong participation among exile Estonians. Among the member organizations in the late 1960s were Democratic Alliance, Baltic Committee, Nordic War and UN Veterans Association[9] and the Committee for a Free Asia. The National League of Sweden was also linked to the organization for some time. Swedish chairman has been Birger Nerman (1967–70), Arvo Horm (1970-1984), Birger Hagård (1984–88) and Åke J. Ek (1988-2011).[10]


In 1978, Roger Pearson became the World Chairman of the WACL. Pearson was described in a Washington Post article as having neo-Nazi associations[11][12][13][14][15][16] and sources report that as a result of an article in the Washington Post in 1978 critical of WACL and alleging extreme right wing politics of Pearson that either he was expelled from WACL or at least was pressured into resigning from his position as World Chairman.[17][18][19]

The U.S. chapter of WACL, the United States Council for World Freedom (USCWF) was founded in 1981 by Major General John K. Singlaub. Singlaub was the former US Chief of Staff of both United Nations and American forces in South Korea, but was relieved in 1977 by U.S. President Jimmy Carter after publicly criticizing Carter's decision to reduce the number of troops on the peninsula.[citation needed] Singlaub became a member of the WACL in 1980, and founded and became president of its U.S. chapter, the United States Council for World Freedom. This branch generated controversy when it supported Nicaraguan guerrillas in the Iran–Contra affair[20] and, in 1981, the USCWF was placed under watch by the Anti-Defamation League, which said that the organization had increasingly become "a point of contact for extremists, racists, and anti-Semites".[21][22] During the 1980s, the USCWF and WACL conducted a purge of these elements, and invited ADL observers to monitor its conferences;[23] by 1985, the Anti-Defamation League declared itself "satisfied that substantial progress has been made since 1981 in ridding the organization of racists and anti-Semites."[24]

It is alleged that in the mid-1980s WACL had become a supplier of arms to anti-communist rebel movements in southern Africa, Central America, Afghanistan and the Far East.[25] During the 1980s, the WACL was particularly active in Latin America, notably by aiding the Contra forces in Nicaragua.[26] During this period, WACL was criticized for the presence in the organization of neo-Nazis, war criminals, and people linked to death squads and assassinations.[21] Other allegations have included reports claim that the World League for Freedom and Democracy is responsible for producing what its opponents call "troops of killers", while ostensibly organizing to provide support for Corazon Aquino from the right-wing in the Philippines[27] and for supporting the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) movement in Mozambique.[28]

The World Anti-Communist League held annual conferences at various locations throughout the world. Numerous groups participated, including the Unification Church of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon. WACL also enjoyed support from many U.S. Congressmen, most notably 2008 presidential nominee Senator John McCain (R-AZ),[20][29] who sat on the United States Council for World Freedom (USCWF) Board of Directors in the early 1980s.[30][31] McCain has said previously he resigned from the council in 1984 and asked in 1986 to have his name removed from the group's letterhead.[32]

Controversial membersEdit

In the World Anti-Communist League, numerous Nazi collaborators and Latin American death squads were active. The prominent members included:[33]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "MOFA asks for league funding despite criticism - Taipei Times".
  2. ^ Monique Chu, NGO celebrates World Freedom Day, Taipei Times, 3 February 2002
  3. ^ Peng, Wan-hsin; Chung, Jake (6 November 2016). "DPP caucus agrees to cut WLFD, APLFD budgets". Taipei Times. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b Asia in the Pacific Islands: Replacing the West By R. G. Crocombe
  6. ^ "Advocates of Freedom and Democracy Gather in Songdo, Incheon - Korea IT Times".
  7. ^ Det fri Aktuelt: 18 September 1988: "Gæst hos fascismen" archived at
  8. ^ "WLFD - Deutschland".
  9. ^ "Aftonbladet debatt: Olof Palme var ett hot mot extremhögern".
  10. ^ "Tobias Hübinette: En introduktion till World Anti-Communist League" (PDF).
  11. ^ "The Fascist Specter Behind The World Anti-Red League". The Washington Post. 29 May 1978. pp. C1–C2.
  12. ^ Sklar, Holly (January 1988). Washington's War on Nicaragua. South End Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-89608-295-3. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  13. ^ Bellant, Russ (1991). Old Nazis, the New Right, and the Republican Party. South End Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-89608-418-6. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  14. ^ Tucker, William H. (2007) [first published 2002]. The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. pp. 162, 166. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (10 December 2014).
  15. ^ Scatamburlo d'Annibale, Valerie (19 November 2011). Cold Breezes and Idiot Winds: Patriotic Correctness and the Post-9/11 Assault on Academe. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 60. ISBN 978-94-6091-409-6. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  16. ^ Richards, Graham (2012). 'Race,' Racism, and Psychology: Towards a Reflexive History (Second ed.). Routledge. pp. 399–400. ISBN 978-0-415-56142-6. Lay summary (22 May 2013).
  17. ^ Kelsey, Tim; Rowe, Trevor (1990-03-04). "Academics were funded by racist American trust". The Independent.
  18. ^ Lincoln, Bruce (1999). Theorizing Myth: Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship. University of Chicago Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-226-48201-9. Lay summary (7 April 2015).
  19. ^ Tucker, William H. (2007) [first published 2002]. The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (10 December 2014).
  20. ^ a b Yost, Pete (2008-10-07). "McCain linked to group in Iran-Contra affair". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  21. ^ a b Anti-Semitism Charges Lead To Delay on Religion Prize, New York Times, April 19, 1988.
  22. ^ Anti-Defamation League (1981), "Terrorism’s Targets: Democracy, Israel and Jews", p23 - cited at ADL on the WACL & John McCain
  23. ^ Singlaub, Hazardous Duty, p. 447
  24. ^ "ADL on the WACL & John McCain". Archived from the original on 2016-11-07.
  25. ^ David Pallister, David Beresford and Angela Johnson. "Guns, Goons, and Western Goals", The Guardian, April 24, 1993.
  26. ^ "McCain linked to group in Iran-Contra affair", USA Today, 7 October 2008.
  27. ^ The Village Voice, February 27, 1996
  28. ^ The Guardian, August 6, 1994 Missing or empty |title= (help).
  29. ^ Smith, Ben. "A shot across the bows". Politico. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  30. ^ "Meet the Press", MSNBC (transcript), MSN, October 5, 2008.
  31. ^ Schor, Elana (2008-10-07). "US election: Democrats threaten to hit McCain on Iran-Contra link". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2008-10-07. |section= ignored (help)
  32. ^ "McCain tied to Iran-Contra group". 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  33. ^ "Full text of "Scott & Jon Lee Anderson - Inside the League (1986).pdf (PDFy mirror)"".
  34. ^ "World Anti-Communist Leaugue (WACL)".

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit