Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace

Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace

Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace is a peace movement started by women in Liberia, Africa, that worked to end the Second Liberian Civil War. Organized by Crystal Roh Gawding and social workers Leymah Gbowee and Comfort Freeman, the movement began despite Liberia having extremely limited civil rights. Thousands of Muslim and Christian women from various classes mobilized their efforts, staged silent nonviolence protests that included a sex strike and the threat of a curse.


Peace dealEdit

In 2003 during the Second Liberian Civil War, Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace forced a meeting with President Charles Taylor and extracted a promise from him to attend peace talks in Ghana[1] to negotiate with the rebels from Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy and Movement for Democracy in Liberia. A delegation of Liberian women went to Ghana to continue to apply pressure on the warring factions during the peace process.[2]

They staged a sit in outside of the Presidential Palace, blocking all the doors and windows and preventing anyone from leaving the peace talks without a resolution. The women of Liberia became a political force against violence and against their government. Their actions brought about an agreement during the stalled peace talks. As a result, the women were able to achieve peace in Liberia after a 14-year civil war and later helped bring to power the country's first female head of state, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.[2]


Crystal Roh Gawding, President of St.Peter's Lutheran Church Women and Comfort Freeman, National President for All of the Women of Lutheran Church in Liberia, presidents of two different Lutheran churches, organized the Women in Peacebuilding Network (WIPNET), and issued a statement of intent: "In the past we were silent, but after being killed, raped, dehumanized, and infected with diseases, and watching our children and families destroyed, war has taught us that the future lies in saying NO to violence and YES to peace! We will not relent until peace prevails."[3][4] Thousands of local women prayed and sang in a fish market daily for months.[5]

Asatu Bah Kenneth, Assistant Minister for Administration and Public Safety of the Liberian Ministry of Justice,[6] was president of the Liberia Female Law Enforcement Association at the time. Inspired by the work of the Christian women's peace initiative, she formed the Liberian Muslim Women's Organization to work for peace.[7]

Together, Gbowee, Freeman and Kenneth brought both groups together to form the Mass Action, a rare thing to happen in Liberia. Since they were brought together, relations have been less tense and more open between Christians and Muslims in Liberia, specifically Monrovia.

The Christian and Muslim women joined forces to create Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace. They wore white, to symbolize peace.

For her leadership, Leymah Gbowee has received international recognition, including the 2009 John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award[8] and the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.

Lasting legacy of WIPSENEdit

Since the adoption of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2000, women have been engaged in rebuilding war-torn societies, restoring relationships and promoting social cohesion. Women Peace and Security Network — Africa (WIPSEN-Africa), is a women-focused, women-led Pan-African Non-Governmental Organization based in Ghana. It was established on May 8, 2006 to promote women's strategic participation and leadership in peace and security governance in Africa.[9]

Leymah Gbowee is the founding member, and served as Executive Director until 2012.[10] The organization has a presence in Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Similar protestsEdit

  • On March 23, at the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Summit in Nigeria,[17] a "One Thousand Women March" was organized by peace activists in West Africa. They wore white T-shirts[17] and represented countries across West Africa including Ivory Coast, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo. They issued a press release and presented a position statement to the ECOWAS Heads of State.[18]

Pray the Devil Back to HellEdit

Pray the Devil Back to Hell is a documentary film directed by Gini Reticker and produced by Abigail Disney. The film premiered at the 2008 Tribeca Film Festival, where it won the award for Best Documentary.[19] The film documents the efforts of Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace. The film has been used as an advocacy tool in post-conflict zones like Sudan and Zimbabwe, mobilizing African women to petition for peace and security.[20]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Bio of Gbowee Leymah Archived March 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b Liberian women pray as the nation heads to the polls
  4. ^ "How the Women of Liberia Fought for Peace and Won". tavaana.org. E-Collaborative for Civic Education. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  5. ^ 2009 Archived December 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ http://unmil.org/1article.asp?id=3718&zdoc=1
  7. ^ United Nations Radio
  8. ^ Bill Moyers Journal, June 19, 2009
  9. ^ WIPSEN
  10. ^ "WIPSEN EMPOWERS WOMEN...To fight for their rights" (article). Ghana Media Group. December 11, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Ivory Coast women defiant after being targeted by Gbagbo's guns" (article). The Guardian. March 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  12. ^ "A plea for help from an Ivorian women's leader amid the violent power struggle" (radio broadcast). BBC Radio. March 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  13. ^ "Ivory Coast: women shot dead at anti-Gbagbo rally" (article). Euronews. March 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  14. ^ "Ivory Coast's well-armed rebels making quick work of revolution" (article). The Guardian. April 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-01. 
  15. ^ "Women in Ivory Coast lead the revolution against Gbagbo" (article). Newscast Media. March 9, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  16. ^ "The Ivory Coast Effect" (article). The New Yorker. March 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
  17. ^ a b "ECOWAS Summit: West African women protest Ivorian situation" (article). Afrique en ligne. March 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  18. ^ ""Thousand Women Protest March" in Solidarity with the Women of Cote d'Ivoire" (article). WIPSEN. March 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  19. ^ Tribeca Film Festival
  20. ^ November 2009 MEDIAGLOBAL

External linksEdit