Women's Professional Football League

The Women's Professional American Football League (WPFL) was the first women's professional American football league in the United States. With teams across the United States, the WPFL had its first game in 1999 with just two original teams: the Lake Michigan Minx and the Minnesota Vixens. Fifteen teams nationwide competed for the championship in 2006.

Women's Professional Football League
WPFL logo.png
The WPFL logo
SportAmerican football
No. of teams1
Country United States
Most recent
So Cal Scorpions

The league had been recognized in national media campaigns, in the book Atta Girl, and even had a team (the New England Storm) that had a commercial relationship with an NFL team, the New England Patriots.

Unlike the other women's American football franchises, the WPFL operated as a fall league and not a spring league.


In the early 1960s, many women thought that sports in the US were sexist and needed to shift in another direction, moving beyond the stereotype that women were passive. This sentiment formed the background for the women's football league that was started in order to prove that women had the power to do what men did, with hopes that people would enjoy women's football as much as they did men's. In 1965, the name changed to its WPFL incarnation. Since there were no college women's football teams in the US, most of their athletes came from basketball, rugby, and association football (soccer). After a few years, the sport began to fade.

In 1999 two businessmen, Carter Turner and Terry Sullivan,[1] decided to research the feasibility of a professional women’s football league by gathering together top female athletes into two teams and playing an exhibition game in front of an audience. The game between the Lake Michigan Minx and the Minnesota Vixens at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis, Minnesota was a success and turned into a six-game exhibition tour across the country[2] dubbed the “No Limits” Barnstorming Tour.[3]

The success of the Barnstorming Tour led to the first official WPFL season in 2000 with 11 teams competing nationwide.[4] This first season ended with some turmoil however; the regular season was shortened by several games, players were not given their promised $100 per-game salaries, and there were allegations regarding instability with some of the league's financial backers.[5]

The WPFL rebounded the next year completing the 2001 season after several organizational changes. Notable changes included the departure of founders Sullivan and Turner (Turner then founded the WAFL;[6] restructure of the league by several WPFL team owners: Melissa Korpacz - New England Storm, Robin Howington - Houston Energy, and Donna Roebuck and Dee Kennamer - Austin Rage;[7] changes to player/team compensation; and the moving of the start of the season from fall to summer.[8]


Year Champion Score Runner-Up
1999 Lake Michigan Minx 30-27 Minnesota Vixen
2000 Houston Energy 39-7 New England Storm
2001 Houston Energy 47-14 Austin Rage
2002 Houston Energy 56-7 Wisconsin Riveters
2003 Northern Ice 53-12 Florida Stingrays
2004 Dallas Diamonds 68-13 Northern Ice
2005 Dallas Diamonds 61-8 New York Dazzles
2006 Dallas Diamonds 34-27 Houston Energy
2007 SoCal Scorpions 14-7 Houston Energy

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