Winnipeg Police Service
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The Winnipeg Police Service is the police force of the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
|Winnipeg Police Service|
Service de police de Winnipeg (French)
|Motto||Building Relationships, A culture of safety for all (2015)|
|Annual budget||$301.4 million (2018)|
|Elected officer responsible|
When Winnipeg became a city, in 1873, an election was held to select the city's new mayor and aldermen. Those appointed decided to hire city officials, including a chief constable. On February 23, 1874, John S. Ingram was appointed the first Chief of Police of Winnipeg.
During the 1919 Winnipeg General Strike, most of the force was replaced with 2000 better-paid special constables, for refusing to sign a declaration promising to not belong to a union or participate in a sympathy strike, even though they remained on duty during the strike. The union was thus broken, and Chris H. Newton became the acting chief constable.
In 1972, Winnipeg merged with its eight neighbouring communities, causing their amalgamation, but still having eight police services with different uniforms and radio channels. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) contract for Charleswood and Headingly was cancelled, and that area fell under the inner city patrol area. On October 21, 1974, the amalgamation of the services was complete, and the remaining eight services formed into six districts. On January 1, 1975, all police officers in Winnipeg started to wear the same uniform with matching shoulder flashes that stated, "One, with the strength of many".
|Police chief constables|
|Police chief constable||Years served|
|John S. Ingram||1874–1875|
|D. B. Murray||1875–1887|
|John C. McRae||1887–1911|
|Christopher H. Newton||1919–1934|
|Robert T. Taft||1953–1965|
|George S. Blow||1965–1970|
|Norman M. Stewart||1970–1974|
In the early 1990s, J.B. Dale Henry, a retired RCMP officer and former commander of the Manitoba "D" Division, was selected as the first chief of police not from the service's own ranks. Henry was well respected amongst minorities and sought to change and improve the image of police in Winnipeg. One of the most noticeable changes was the name for the police, from the "Winnipeg Police Force" (which it had been for 120 years), to the "Winnipeg Police Service". Another change was the addition of the motto "Community Commitment".
Henry also changed the department crest to the one known today and pictured above. The 13 golden stars on the badge represent the 13 communities that came together to form Winnipeg during the amalgamation in the 1970s, and the crocus is the provincial flower.
In 2003, city council approved a plan by the Winnipeg Police Service to go from six districts, to four. This plan involved three new police facilities. The new East District Station was completed in 2008, and the West District Station was completed in November 2013.
The Winnipeg Police Service is headed by Chief of Police Danny Smyth, appointed November 8, 2016, succeeding Chief Devon Clunis who retired July 9, 2016. The three deputy chiefs are Art Stannard, Gord Perrier, and Jeff Szyszkowski. The service has 1442 officers of which approximately half are on the front lines, known as "general patrol" (uniform operations). The WPS also has over 510 civilian workers.
The City of Winnipeg is divided into four policing districts: Downtown, West, North and East. Each district contains several generalized and specialized police units.
Specialized units include:
- Bicycle patrol
- Bomb disposal
- Central traffic
- Crowd management
- Photo enforcement
- River patrol
- Underwater search and recovery
- Victim services
- Street crime
- Tactical support team (TST) – formerly the part-time emergency response unit (ERU) made up of officers trained for special circumstances, such as hostage situations, armed and barricaded incidents and search warrants
- Training – includes, police vehicle operations instructors, policy and law instructors, firearms instructors, and use of force instructors – located at the WPS Training Academy
- Division 40 – criminal investigation bureau – homicide, drugs, hate crimes, major crimes, morals, integrated proceeds of crime (IPOC), organized crime and Crime Stoppers
- Division 41 – criminal investigation bureau – missing persons, child abuse, Internet child exploitation (ICE), domestic violence, high risk offenders, sex crimes, vulnerable persons, and youth crime
- Division 42 – criminal investigation bureau – arson, commercial crime, stolen auto, pawn, surveillance and forensic services
- Flight operations
- Auxiliary force cadet section
both marked and unmarked
Ranks and InsigniaEdit
|Rank||Chief of police||Deputy chief of police||Superintendent||Inspector||Staff sergeant||Sergeant||Detective sergeant / patrol sergeant||Senior constable||Constable|
Potential trainees must be at least eighteen years old with a high school diploma, and able to complete the Police Officer's Physical Aptitude Test (POPAT), which determines a recruit's physical ability. Training is salaried and takes 37 weeks consisting of classroom time, use of force and in the field training with assigned field training officers who supervise them while they carry out all regular duties. After this process is finished the recruit is inducted into the police service. After five years of general patrol service, officers may apply for specialty divisions like those listed above.
Winnipeg Police MuseumEdit
The Winnipeg Police Museum is a museum that displays the history of the Winnipeg Police Service from 1874 to the present. Pictures, equipment, vehicles and other artifacts are presented within the museum. An original 1911 jail cell from the North End Station is one of the highlights of the museum. In June 2016, the museum moved to a new location inside police headquarters at 245 Smith Street.
Incidents involving AboriginalsEdit
On March 9, 1988, Winnipeg Police constable Robert Cross approached Aboriginal J.J. Harper, having mistaken him for an auto theft suspect, a struggle ensued . Harper grabbed the officer's service revolver and while struggle ensued the gun went off, killing Harper. Initially, this shooting was ruled as justified by the internal firearms board of enquiry. Subsequently, however, the shooting and other events led to the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry, a comprehensive investigation into the treatment of First Nations people within the Manitoba justice system. In 1991, the inquiry concluded that the WPS internal investigation was faulty and intended more to exonerate Cross than to discover the truth. Furthermore, they ruled that Constable Cross had used excessive force and was therefore responsible for Harper's death even though Harper grabbed at the officer's revolver. Constable Cross left the department citing stress and died prematurely of heart disease in his 40s. The report recommended that, in the future, officer-involved shootings be investigated by independent parties.
On January 31, 2005, 18-year-old Matthew Dumas was armed with a screwdriver and was confronted by Constable Dennis Gbarek (a Metis officer). At the time, police were investigating a home invasion and Dumas was believed to be involved. The constable ordered Dumas to drop the screwdriver several times while Dumas responded by lunging at the constable and was shot. Dumas died from his injuries, It was later determined he was not involved in the home invasion. Two reviews of the shooting were performed by the Calgary Police Service in August 2006 and by the Ontario Crown Attorney's Office in May 2007 at the Manitoba government's request. Both reviews concluded the Winnipeg Police investigation of the shooting was handled properly. In June 2008, an inquest was held into Dumas's death. The inquest's report, released in December 2008, ruled that racism was not a factor in the incident.
Two incidents in the summer of 2008 sparked further accusations of racism within the police service. In July, 17-year-old Michael Langan, a Métis, died after being tasered by police. Witnesses had reported a youth breaking into a vehicle, and police encountered Langan several blocks away, allegedly wielding a knife and refusing to surrender. David Chartrand, president of the Manitoba Metis Federation, suggested that racial profiling may have resulted in police using excessive force, an accusation that Police Chief Keith McCaskill denied. In August, Craig McDougall, a member of Wasagamach First Nation and nephew of J.J. Harper, was tasered then shot by police responding to a disturbance call in the city's West End. Police reported that McDougall was brandishing a knife, though family members have disputed that claim, saying McDougall was carrying a cellular phone.
In February 2005, a truck driven by off-duty WPS constable Derek Harvey-Zenk, reportedly drunk after having attended an all-night party, rear-ended and killed Crystal Taman, a 40-year-old woman, while she was stopped at a red light. The incident was initially investigated by East St. Paul Police. Harvey-Zenk was originally charged with "impaired driving causing death" and numerous other charges. In July 2007, however, Harvey-Zenk was pled down to "dangerous driving causing death" (a lesser charge) and given a conditional sentence of "two years less a day", to be served at his home.
Public outcry over the plea and allegations that the investigation had been botched led to a provincial inquiry, which began in June 2008. At the inquiry, multiple police officers testified that they did not notice Harvey-Zenk drinking, leading to allegations of a police cover-up. Furthermore, a waitress who served the officers liquor throughout the evening testified that she was pressured to not "remember too much" by the restaurant's manager, who was friends with the officers. Officers involved in the investigation have denied they gave preferential treatment to Harvey-Zenk.
Chiefs of policeEdit
Chief constables of the Winnipeg Police ForceEdit
- John S. Ingram 1874 – 1875
- B. Murray 1875 – 1887
- John C. McRae 1887 – 1911
- Donald Macpherson 1911 – 1919
- Christopher H. Newton 1919 – 1934
- George Smith 1934 – 1947
- Charles mcIver 1947 – 1953
- Robert T. Taft 1953 – 1965
- George S. Blow 1965 – 1970
- Norman M. Stewart 1970 - 1974
Chiefs of the Winnipeg Police DepartmentEdit
- Norman M. Stewart 1974 - 1981
- Kenneth Johnston 1981 - 1984
- Herb B. Stephen 1984 - 1991
- Dale Henry 1991 - 1995
Chiefs of the Winnipeg Police ServiceEdit
- Dale Henry 1995 - 1996
- David A. Cassels 1996 - 1998
- Jack Ewatski 1998-2007
- Keith McCaskill 2007-2012
- Devon Clunis 2012-2016
- Danny Smyth 2016 -
- "Winnipeg Police Service 2019 Budget Review" (PDF). www.winnipeg.ca. 2018.
- "History & Formation". City of Winnipeg. August 10, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- "Four District Model". City of Winnipeg. November 8, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- "Winnipeg Police Districts & Service Centres". About the Service. City of Winnipeg. November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- "History & Museum Winnipeg Police Museum". City of Winnipeg. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- James, Randy (2016). "The Winnipeg Police Service & The Winnipeg Police Museum". Heritage Winnipeg. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- CBC News, J.J. Harper: 15 Years Later, 2008.
- The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission, The exoneration, 1991.
- The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission, Conclusions, 1991.
- "Inquest begins into police shooting of Winnipeg teen". CBC News. June 9, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "2nd review supports Dumas shooting investigation". CBC News. May 4, 2007. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Winnipeg Free Press, Use of force appropriate: Dumas Inquest, June 19, 2008". Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- "No racism in Dumas shooting: inquest report". CBC News. December 9, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- Manitoba Court Inquest, Manitoba Fatalities Inquest Summary , Dec 9, 2008.
- "Winnipeg teen's death after zap from Taser 'tragic event:' police chief". CBC News. July 24, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Man shot to death after Taser fails, Winnipeg police say". CBC News. August 2, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- Canadian Press. Native leaders call for inquiry into Winnipeg police after fatal shooting[permanent dead link]. August 5, 2008.[dead link]
- "Paramedic, constable smelled alcohol on cop in deadly crash: inquiry". CBC News. July 4, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Police officers 'drank a lot' on night before fatal crash: former waitress". CBC News. July 17, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Taman inquiry a timeline". Winnipeg Free Press. August 15, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008.[dead link]
- "No jail time for ex-cop who killed woman in car crash". CBC News. October 29, 2007. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Province calls inquiry into ex-cop's conviction in crash". CBC News. October 30, 2007. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "Taman Inquiry into the Investigation and Prosecution of Derek Harvey-Zenk". Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- "Cop tells Taman inquiry he was too busy to notice colleagues' drinking". CBC News. July 18, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- "No conspiracy to protect officer involved in fatal crash, inquiry told". CBC News. July 7, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2018.