William Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland

William Henry Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland, KG (27 July 1766 – 29 January 1842), styled Viscount Barnard until 1792 and known as The Earl of Darlington between 1792 and 1827 and as The Marquess of Cleveland between 1827 and 1833, was a British landowner and politician.


The Duke of Cleveland

Duke of Cleveland.jpg
William Vane wearing the parliamentary robes of an earl. By Arthur William Devis, 1810.
Lord-Lieutenant of County Durham
In office
1792–1842
Monarch
Preceded byThe Earl of Darlington
Succeeded byThe Marquess of Londonderry
Personal details
Born
William Harry Vane

(1766-07-27)27 July 1766
Died29 January 1842(1842-01-29) (aged 75)
St James's Square, Westminster, London
NationalityBritish
Spouse(s)
Lady Catherine Powlett
(m. 1787; died 1807)
Elizabeth Russell
(m. 1813)
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford
Quartered arms of William Harry Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel, viz. 1st and 4th: Azure, three sinister gauntlets appaumée or (VANE); 2nd and 3rd: The royal arms of King Charles II, over all a baton sinister ermine (FITZROY)
Arms of Vane: Azure, three sinister gauntlets (appaumée) or[1] These are a difference of the arms of the Fane family, Earls of Westmorland from 1624, which show: three dexter gauntlets back affrontée, with identical tinctures

Background and educationEdit

Styled Viscount Barnard from birth, he was the son of Henry Vane, 2nd Earl of Darlington, son of Henry Vane, 1st Earl of Darlington and Lady Grace FitzRoy, daughter of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, son of King Charles II by his mistress Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland. His mother was Margaret Lowther, daughter of Robert Lowther, Governor of Barbados, and sister of James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale. He was baptised at the Chapel Royal at St James's Palace (with the names William Harry which he later changed to William Henry). He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford.[2]

Public lifeEdit

Barnard was Whig Member of Parliament for Totnes from 1788 to 1790[2][3] and for Winchelsea from 1790 to 1792.[2][4] The latter year he succeeded his father in the earldom and took his seat in the House of Lords. He also succeeded his father as Lord Lieutenant of County Durham, a post he held until his death.[5] In 1794 he was announced as the Lieutenant-colonel of a regiment to be raised, the Durham Regiment of Fencible Cavalry.[6] In 1810 he successfully laid claim to the Pulteney Estate in Bath after the Countess of Bath died intestate in 1808.[7] In 1827 he was created Marquess of Cleveland,[8] a revival of the Cleveland title held by his ancestors. He was Bearer of the Third Sword at King William IV's coronation on 8 September 1831.[9] In 1833 he was made Baron Raby, of Raby Castle in the County Palatine of Durham, and Duke of Cleveland.[10] He was further honoured when he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1839.[11]

His promotions through the ranks of the peerage were not uncontroversial. Greville noted in his diary on 8 September 1831:

Howe told me yesterday morning in Westminster Abbey that Lord Cleveland is to be made a duke, though it is not yet acknowledged if it is to be so. There has been a battle about that; they say that he got his boroughs to be made a marquis and got rid of them to be made a duke".[12]

According to the Legacies of British Slave-Ownership at the University College London, Cleveland was awarded a payment as a slave trader in the aftermath of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 with the Slave Compensation Act 1837. The British Government took out a £15 million loan (worth £1.8 billion in 2020) with interest from Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Moses Montefiore which was subsequently paid off by the British taxpayers (ending in 2015). Cleveland was associated with "T71/898 Barbados claim no. 3184 (Lowther)", he owned 233 slaves in Barbados and received a £4,854 payment at the time.[13]

FamilyEdit

Cleveland married his cousin, Lady Catherine Powlett (1766–1807), daughter of Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton, on 17 September 1787 at her father's seat, Hackwood Park. They had eight children:

After his first wife's death in London in June 1807, Cleveland married as his second wife, Elizabeth Russell (c. 1777–1861), daughter of Robert Russell, on 27 July 1813. There were no children from this marriage. Cleveland died at St James's Square, Westminster, London, in January 1842, aged 75, and was buried at Staindrop, County Durham. His eldest son Henry succeeded in the dukedom. The Duchess of Cleveland died in January 1861.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.115, which omits appaumée, useful in differentiating from Fane arms; concerning appaumée Cussans (1898) states: "In blazoning a Hand, besides stating what position it occupies, and whether it be the dexter or sinister, and erased or couped, it must be mentioned whether it be clenched or appaumé". (Cussans, John, Handbook of Heraldry, 2nd Edition, London, 1868, p.47 [1], p.92)
  2. ^ a b c d thepeerage.com Sir William Henry Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland
  3. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "T" (part 2)
  4. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" (part 4)
  5. ^ leighrayment.com Peerage: Cleveland to Columbers
  6. ^ "War Office". Derby Mercury. 29 May 1794. p. 3.
  7. ^ Baggs, A P; Bolton, Diane K; Hicks, M A; Pugh, R B (1980). "'Hornsey, including Highgate: Other estates', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 6, Friern Barnet, Finchley, Hornsey With Highgate". London: British History Online. pp. 146–149. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  8. ^ "No. 18397". The London Gazette. 18 September 1827. p. 1955.
  9. ^ "No. 18848". The London Gazette. 13 September 1831. p. 1865.
  10. ^ "No. 19013". The London Gazette. 15 January 1833. p. 97.
  11. ^ "No. 19726". The London Gazette. 19 April 1839. p. 832.
  12. ^ Charles C. F. Greville, A Journal of the Reigns of King George IV and King William IV, volume II (London, Longmans Green & Co, 1874), at page 192
  13. ^ "William Harry Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland [Earl of Darlington; Marquess of Cleveland]". University College London. Retrieved 20 March 2019.

External linksEdit

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Sir Philip Jennings-Clerke, Bt
Henry Phipps
Member of Parliament for Totnes
1788–1790
With: Henry Phipps
Succeeded by
William Powlett Powlett
Francis Buller Yarde
Preceded by
John Nesbitt
William Nedham
Member of Parliament for Winchelsea
1790–1792
With: Richard Barwell
Succeeded by
Richard Barwell
Sir Frederick Fletcher-Vane, Bt
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Darlington
Lord Lieutenant of County Durham
1792–1842
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Londonderry
Vacant
Title last held by
The Earl of Darlington
Vice-Admiral of Durham
1795–1842
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Duke of Cleveland
1833–1842
Succeeded by
Henry Vane
Marquess of Cleveland
1827–1842
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Henry Vane
Earl of Darlington
1792–1842
Succeeded by
Henry Vane