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William S. Kenyon (Iowa politician)

William Squire Kenyon (June 10, 1869 – September 9, 1933) was a United States Senator from Iowa, and a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit.

William S. Kenyon
William Squire Kenyon.jpg
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
In office
January 31, 1922 – September 9, 1933
Appointed byWarren G. Harding
Preceded byWalter I. Smith
Succeeded byCharles Breckenridge Faris
United States Senator
from Iowa
In office
April 12, 1911 – February 24, 1922
Preceded byLafayette Young
Succeeded byCharles A. Rawson
Personal details
Born
William Squire Kenyon

(1869-06-10)June 10, 1869
Elyria, Ohio
DiedSeptember 9, 1933(1933-09-09) (aged 64)
Sebasco Estates, Maine
Resting placeOakland Cemetery
Fort Dodge, Iowa
Political partyRepublican
EducationGrinnell College
University of Iowa
read law

Education and careerEdit

Born on June 10, 1869, in Elyria, Lorain County, Ohio,[1] Kenyon attended Grinnell College and the University of Iowa, then read law in 1891.[1] He was admitted to the bar and entered private practice in Fort Dodge, Iowa from 1891 to 1911.[1] He was prosecutor for Webster County, Iowa from 1892 to 1896.[1] He returned to private practice in Webster County from 1897 to 1900, and from 1902 to 1904.[1] He was a Judge of the Iowa District Court for the Eleventh Judicial District from 1900 to 1902,[1] before leaving to accept a position with his father-in-law, J. F. Duncombe, who was Iowa counsel for the Illinois Central Railroad.[2] Kenyon succeeded his father-in-law as the railroad's Iowa counsel upon Duncombe's death in 1904.[2] In 1908, Kenyon was promoted and served as the railroad's general counsel for all lines north of the Ohio River.[2] He was an assistant to the Attorney General of the United States from 1910 to 1911.[1]

United States Senate serviceEdit

Kenyon, relatively unknown in political circles,[3] announced his candidacy for election to the United States Senate by the 1911 Iowa General Assembly. Considered "a conservative with progressive proclivities,"[3] he sought to wrest the seat away from fellow Republican Lafayette Young, who had been appointed by the governor upon the death of Jonathan P. Dolliver. On April 12, 1911, Kenyon was elected on the 67th ballot after a session-long stalemate, in which Young was his principal Republican adversary until the 23rd ballot.[2] Kenyon was re-elected to the Senate in January 1913 (by legislative ballot)[4] and November 1918 (by direct popular election, following ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution), defeating Democrat Charles Rollin Keyes, a noted geologist.

In April 1917, Kenyon received a letter from Iowa Attorney General Horace Havner concerning the 1912 Villisca axe murders. In the Senate, Kenyon was considered a leading progressive and co-sponsored the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, and the Child Labor Act.[5] In 1921, he formed the bipartisan "farm bloc" in the Senate, which led to the enactment of several farm-related bills, such as the Packers and Stockyards Act, regulation of grain futures and futures trading in grain, and the Fordney–McCumber Tariff.[5] A supporter of Prohibition, he co-authored the Webb–Kenyon Act, which was intended to bolster the ability of states to enforce their own prohibition laws (prior to the adoption of the Volstead Act).

On the eve of the United States' entry into World War I, Kenyon was one of a group of twelve senators who blocked President Woodrow Wilson's armed neutrality bill, which would have given Wilson the power to arm American vessels.[6] However, after Wilson asked Congress to declare war one month later, Kenyon voted in favor of the declaration.[7] Following the Armistice, when Wilson pressed the Senate to support the United States' membership in the League of Nations, Kenyon became a member of the moderate faction known as the "mild reservationists," who allowed for the possibility of membership so long as the treaty were amended to address a specified list of reservations held by those senators and pursued compromise solutions.[8] However, when Wilson refused to compromise, Kenyon continued to oppose United States membership.[9]

Kenyon served as Chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State in the Sixty-second Congress, Chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the War Department (also in the Sixty-second Congress), Chairman of the Committee on Standards, Weights and Measures (in the Sixty-fifth Congress), Chairman of the Committee on Education and Labor (in the Sixty-sixth Congress and Sixty-seventh Congress), and Chairman of the Committee on the Philippines (in the Sixty-sixth Congress).[10] Kenyon resigned from the Senate on February 24, 1922, to accept a federal judgeship.[11]

Federal judicial serviceEdit

Kenyon was nominated by President Warren G. Harding on January 31, 1922, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit vacated by Judge Walter I. Smith.[1] He was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 31, 1922, and received his commission the same day.[1] His service terminated on September 9, 1933, due to his death.[1]

Notable caseEdit

In 1926, Kenyon wrote the Eighth Circuit's ruling in the principal civil suit arising from the Teapot Dome scandal. Reversing a federal district court in Wyoming, the appellate court panel ordered the lower court to cancel the Mammoth Oil Co.'s leases, demand an accounting of the oil which had been taken from Teapot Dome, and the company was enjoined from trespassing further on United States Government property.[12]

Political offersEdit

While a sitting federal judge, Kenyon was the subject of numerous offers of appointive and elective office. In January 1923, before the death of President Harding, newspapers speculated that Judge Kenyon would be Harding's leading opponent in the 1924 presidential race.[13] At the 1924 Republican National Convention, he was touted as a potential vice-presidential candidate with Calvin Coolidge, and he received 172 votes on the first ballot.[5] Even though President Coolidge indicated that Kenyon would be acceptable to him, the Convention instead selected Charles Dawes, who did not get along with Coolidge and many others. Coolidge offered Kenyon the position of Secretary of the Navy, but Kenyon declined to accept it.[14] While a judge, he also served as an active member of a blue-ribbon "National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement," better known as the "Wickersham Commission," appointed by President Herbert Hoover to assess the lessons learned from Prohibition, among other things.[15]

Supreme Court considerationEdit

In 1930, following the death of United States Supreme Court Justice Edward Terry Sanford, Kenyon was considered by some as a favorite to succeed him,[16] but President Hoover instead nominated John J. Parker (who failed to win Senate confirmation) and then Owen Roberts (who was confirmed). In January 1932, when Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes retired, Kenyon's name was again included on short lists of potential successors,[17] but this time Hoover selected New York Court of Appeals Judge Benjamin Cardozo.

DeathEdit

On September 9, 1933, at age 64, Kenyon died in Sebasco Estates, Maine, where he kept a summer home.[10] He was interred in Oakland Cemetery in Fort Dodge.[10]

HonorsEdit

There are streets in Des Moines, Iowa, and Fort Dodge named after Kenyon.[citation needed]

PersonalEdit

Kenyon married Mary Duncombe in 1893, one year after beginning service as a prosecutor for Webster County.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Kenyon, William Squire - Federal Judicial Center". www.fjc.gov.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Judge Kenyon is Elected Senator as Session Ends", Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette, April 13, 1911 at p.1.
  3. ^ a b Cyrenus Cole, A History of the People of Iowa, 529 (Torch Press: 1921).
  4. ^ "Senator Kenyon is Re-elected", Waterloo Reporter, January 23, 1913 at p.3.
  5. ^ a b c Jeffrey Brandon Morris, Establishing Justice in Middle America: A History of the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, 1972 (University of Minnesota Press: 2007).
  6. ^ "Senate Filibuster Kills Armed Neutrality Bill; Wilson Denounces Acts", Waterloo Daily Courier, March 5, 1917 at p.1.
  7. ^ "Senate for War, 82-6; House Debates", Waterloo Daily Courier, April 5, 1917 at p.1.
  8. ^ "Kenyon Supports All Reservations", New York Times, 1919/9/11 at p.6; "Kenyon Comes Out for Treaty Action", New York Times, 1920/01/15 at p.1.
  9. ^ "Lack 7 Votes to Ratify", New York Times, March 20, 1920, at p.1.
  10. ^ a b c United States Congress. "KENYON, William Squire (id: K000129)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  11. ^ Kenyon was nominated by President Harding for the federal bench and immediately confirmed by his Senate colleagues on January 31, 1922, but he delayed his resignation from the Senate for over two weeks, mailing it on February 15 and stating that it was effective February 24. "Kenyon Resignation on the Way", Iowa City Press-Citizen, 1922-02-16, at p.1
  12. ^ "Teapot Dome", Time, October 11, 1926.
  13. ^ "Kenyon Looms Up as Harding Rival", New York Times, January 7, 1923.
  14. ^ "Kenyon Refused the Position", New York Times, March 14, 1924 at p.1.
  15. ^ "Law Board to Report on Prohibition First," October 18, 1930 at p.15.
  16. ^ "Spotlight on Today's News", Waterloo Daily Courier, March 11, 1930 at p.1.
  17. ^ Edward W. Pickard, "News Review of Current Events the World Over", Renwick Times, January 28, 1932 at p.2.

SourcesEdit

Party political offices
Preceded by
Jonathan P. Dolliver
Republican nominee for United States Senator from Iowa (Class 2)
1911, 1912, 1918
Succeeded by
Charles A. Rawson
Preceded by
Charles Curtis
Secretary of the Senate Republican Conference
1913–1915
Succeeded by
James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr.
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Lafayette Young
United States Senator (Class 2) from Iowa
1911–1922
Served alongside: Albert B. Cummins
Succeeded by
Charles A. Rawson
Preceded by
Elihu Root
Chairman of the Senate State Department Expenditures Committee
1911–1912
Succeeded by
William Purnell Jackson
Preceded by
Henry A. du Pont
Chairman of the Senate War Department Expenditures Committee
1911–1913
Succeeded by
Miles Poindexter
Preceded by
Moses E. Clapp
Chairman of the Senate Standards Committee
1917–1919
Succeeded by
James A. Reed
Preceded by
John F. Shafroth
Chairman of the Senate Philippines Committee
1919
Succeeded by
Warren G. Harding
Preceded by
M. Hoke Smith
Chairman of the Senate Education Committee
1919–1922
Succeeded by
William Borah
Legal offices
Preceded by
Walter I. Smith
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
1922–1933
Succeeded by
Charles Breckenridge Faris