William Goddard (publisher)

William Goddard (October 10, 1740– December 23, 1817) was an early American patriot, publisher, printer and postal inspector. He was born in New London, Connecticut and lived through the American Revolution era. He was a staunch anti-imperialist and an ardent defender of the fundamental American ideals of freedom of the press and speech. Goddard served as an apprentice printer under James Parker and in 1762 became an early American publisher who eventually established four newspapers during the American colonial period. For a short time he was also a postmaster of Providence, Rhode Island. Later his newspaper partnership with Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia would play an important role in the development of Franklin's ideas for a postal system in the soon to be united colonies. Goddard's association with Franklin while he was serving as the Postmaster in Philadelphia played an important role when they were introducing many of the reforms and improvements needed in the colonial postal system currently in use.

William Goddard
William Goddard21.jpg
Born(1740-10-10)October 10, 1740
DiedOctober 23, 1817(1817-10-23) (aged 77)
Resting placeNorth Burial Ground
Known forColonial Publisher, Printer, Postmaster, Postal inspector
William Goddard signature.jpg


Early yearsEdit

John Carter, friend and colleague of Goddard, printed The Providence Gazette in the basement of his Providence home

Goddard was born to a well-to-do family in 1740 in New London, Connecticut.[1] His father was Dr. Giles Goddard, a wealthy doctor and postmaster of New London under Benjamin Franklin. His mother was Sarah Updike Goddard, the daughter of Lodowick Updike, whose English and Dutch ancestors were among the first settlers of Rhode Island,[2] was also well educated and later ran the family printing business.[3] Goddard had an older sister Mary Katherine that was involved with the family business because she was inspired by her father to become a printer.[4] Goddard served as an apprentice printer for six years under James Parker starting in 1755 and worked in his New Haven print shop.[5] A few months after his arrival he was given an assignment to go through Connecticut to figure out what it would cost to set up post offices for the colonial forces during the French and Indian Wars.[4][5]

Goddard later worked in Parker's print shop in New York City in 1758 where he was a journeyman with Samuel Farley.[6][7] Farley arrived from Bristol, England, in 1760 and the following year established a newspaper, the New-York American Chronicle, where Goddard and Charles Crouch were his journeymen in Parker's New York City print shop.[6][8]

Goddard's father died in 1762 and soon after his mother moved the family to Providence, Rhode Island. When a fire destroyed Farley's print shop, ending his newspaper, Goddard then opened his first printing-office in Providence in July with a £300 (1762) (equivalent to £43,600 or US$55,700 in 2019)[9] loan from his mother,[5][6] becoming the pioneer printer of the city.[10] He then started, with the help of his mother and sister, The Providence Gazette and Country Journal with the first issue printed on October 20, 1762.[5][6][11] He competed for Rhode Island's business with the market that Franklin's press in Newport had already established.[12] This was the only newspaper printed in Providence before 1775.[13][14] Goddard was the publisher and editor of Providence's first newspaper and his friend John Carter was the printer.[15][16][a][b]

Mid lifeEdit

Goddard quit the family's printing company in Rhode Island because he was not making the income like he thought he would. He suspended the newspaper with issue number 134 on May 11, 1765, and left the business in charge of his mother. He then found a job with the New York City publisher John Holt and became a silent partner with him.[6] After a couple of months he returned to Providence and published on August 24, 1765, an extraordinary issue of the Gazette about the controversy of the Stamp Act of 1765. The newspaper was on the verge of going out of business until Goddard published number 135 on August 9, 1766. At that time the newspaper was published under the name of "Sarah Goddard & Company" and the Stamp Act had been repealed. Goddard then sent Samuel Inslee to assist his mother in the family business, but he retired with the issue printed on September 19, 1767. Then his friend John Carter, who had just left Franklin's print shop in Philadelphia, became a partner with the Goddards' family business. Carter then assisted in printing the weekly newspaper until he purchased the business from them in November 1768.[17] He then became the successor of Goddard's Providence Gazette newspaper and started publishing it alone beginning with issue of November 12, 1768.[18] Goddard's mother died on January 5, 1770.[1][19]

December 14, 1767 edition of the Pennsylvania Chronicle
1785 Maryland Journal

Goddard meanwhile had joined the Sons of Liberty[6] and printed on Parker's press at Woodbridge, New Jersey, the Constitutional Courant screed newspaper of September 21, 1765, which was a patriotic single-issue sheet resembling a newspaper[20] that caused a lot of discussion and deliberations when it was sold on the streets of New York City.[1] It consisted primarily of two essays that bitterly condemned the stamp tax. Goddard then opened a print shop in June 1766 in Philadelphia in partnership with Joseph Galloway and Thomas Wharton and rented one of Franklin's old print presses[1] Galloway was the speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly and promised Goddard the government's printing jobs, and Wharton was a successful merchant.[6]

Goddard established as the mouthpiece of the Anti-Proprietary party the Pennsylvania Chronicle and Universal Advertiser on January 26, 1767.[1] He founded the Pennsylvania Chronicle to rival David Hall's Pennsylvania Gazette[c] and William Bradford's Pennsylvania Journal, who became silent partners with Goddard. The Galloway and Wharton partnership soon dissolved over disagreements about debts and Goddard continued the newspaper alone until the last issue, number 368 on February 8, 1774.[1] Goddard even published a seventy-two-page pamphlet, The Partnership, in 1770, accusing his partners Galloway and Wharton, two of the city's most creditable citizens, of attempting to destroy his business.[21] In retaliation Galloway and Wharton had Goddard imprisoned for debt in September 1771, having to serve three weeks.[19][22][23]

Goddard's Phildelphia business was floundering, so he decided to start over again. He bought the printing equipment and fonts from the widow of Nicholas Hasselbach, Baltimore's first printer, who had unexpectantly died a few years before.[19][d] He then established Baltimore's first newspapers, the Maryland Journal; and the Baltimore Advertiser with the first issue on August 20, 1773.[25] These newspapers were printed with the fonts obtained from Hasselbach.[26] He informed his readers that he would publish all kinds of material of intelligence, foreign or domestic, that would be of interest to the Publick, like notices of the departure of ships, current prices of goods, the course of exchange, accidents, deaths, and events of every kind.[19] Goddard wanted to devote more time to the development of the colonial postal system so turned over the management of the Journal to his sister.[19] It was published under her name of Mary Katherine Goddard starting on May 10, 1775.[4][19] It later became a semi-weekly on March 14, 1783. Goddard took over again the publishing of the newspaper on January 2, 1784.[4]

Goddard's association with Franklin in Philadelphia would play an important role in the development of the Continental Congress postal system in the soon to be united colonies.[19] Franklin was postmaster of Philadelphia from 1759 to 1775 when he was dismissed by the British Crown for exposing the letters of Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson. Goddard's postal system ideas and concepts replaced the existing British postal system[6] and helped Franklin to introduce many of the reforms and improvements needed in the colonial postal system currently in use.[27][28] Goddard was given the post of surveyor in the system and his sister was named postmistress of Baltimore, making her the first woman appointed to a federal office of the United States.[19]

In 1778, paper became very scarce because of the American Revolutionary War, prompting Goddard to establish a paper factory near Baltimore thereby making his own paper for the Maryland Journal.[29] While publishing the Pennsylvania Chronicle, he sold paper to the New York printer John Holt. On June 8, 1779, Colonel Eleazer Oswald, considered a distinguished officer in the Colonial army, formed a business connection with Goddard at Baltimore.[30] He ended his activities as a printer by an almost twenty-year stay in Baltimore.[4]

Goddard helped set up the first press in Alexandria, Virginia, as a silent partner.[31] His newspapers, like many others, printed advertisements for slave sales, brokered through printing offices.[32] As revolutionary sentiments grew and the revolution with Britain drew closer Goddard's mother and sister took over operations at the Gazette for him when he devoted his time and money in other business matters with Franklin and merchants.[33]

American RevolutionEdit

In 1774, in response to the Boston Tea Party, the British Parliament passed what was referred to by the colonists as the Intolerable Acts. Prime Minister Lord North introduced the first measure, the Boston Port Bill, on March 18, 1774. The intrusive bill passed both houses of Parliament with little opposition and was signed by the King at the end of the month.[34] Among other measures the Intolerable Acts closed the port of Boston and radically altered the government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Many colonists viewed the acts as an arbitrary violation of their rights, and in response they organized the First Continental Congress on September 5, 1774 at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia to establish a representative political body to oppose such laws. When the Boston riots erupted in September 1774 over the Coercive Acts, the colonies had lost much trust of the British Crown entirely. Since most of the Colonists were born in the colonies at that time and had never seen the actual 'mother land' they had very little sentiment left for King George III or for the British authorities in the colonies. As a result, the Continental Congress was convened at Philadelphia in May 1775 to create an independent government that would represent the colonists and oppose the arbitrary rules thrust upon them by the Crown. When Benjamin Franklin began to publicly lend support for the American Revolution he was dismissed from the royal postal service which resulted in widespread protests among the colonists where Goddard was among the most outspoken.[35] "Constitutional" post offices,[e] were established in Baltimore and Philadelphia the same year in which Franklin was dismissed. "Constitutional post office" was the term employed by Goddard to distinguish them from the British system that was currently in operation.[36]

During the few years leading up to the Revolution Goddard became well noted for the innovations he introduced to the postal system as it came to be employed in mail delivery between the various colonies. Goddard's postal system came about as the result of a series of conflicts involving his newspaper, The Pennsylvania Chronicle, and the Crown Post, a postal administration and mail delivery system that was in use in the British colonies prior to the advent of American independence, under the authority of the British crown. As the idea of revolution began to surface throughout the colonies the British began manipulating the Crown Post (the colonial mail system) by blocking the mail and communications between the various colonies in an effort to prevent them from organizing with each other. The Crown also resorted to the delaying or destroying of newspapers and opening and reading private mail, a form of postal censorship that the British crown considered legal. Goddard's Pennsylvania Chronicle was sympathetic to the revolutionary ideas being put forth by Benjamin Franklin, and others, and so his publications were routinely criticized by and under the constant scrutiny of the Crown Post authorities. Franklin had just fallen from grace with the British monarchy by exposing Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson with his own letters, showing him to be in collusion with British efforts to impose more laws and taxes on the colonies in America, and so his involvement with the Chronicle further prompted the Crown in their dealings with Goddard's newspaper. In their effort to see the Pennsylvania Chronicle delivered, Franklin and Goddard persevered and in the midst of British scrutiny would create a separate postal system that ultimately became the postal system in use in the United States today.[25] After the war Goddard became involved in a controversy between Generals Charles Lee and George Washington involving the acrimonious publication of Lee's account of Washington's alleged conduct during the war.[37][38]

One of the first issues for the delegates was how to collect and deliver the mail between the various colonies. Franklin, who had just come back from England, was made chairman of a Committee of Investigation to start a colonial postal system. The issue was a pressing one as the existing Crown Post was now routinely manipulating the mail of the colonists prior to the revolution. William Goddard experienced the abuse of authority of the Crown Post in Philadelphia after forming a partnership with Benjamin Franklin to publish the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a paper sympathetic to the revolutionary cause. Goddard was one among several publishers who used private carriers rather than those of the British crown to deliver his Chronicle so as to get the newspapers past the scrutiny of the Crown post who was opposed to Goddard and his Chronicle for their revolutionary sympathies.[39] So adamant was the Crown towards Goddard and the Chronicle that the local Crown postmaster intercepted and refused to deliver mail and other newspapers from other cities and towns to Goddard, depriving him of a critical source of information. The Crown Post also imposed a heavy tax on newspaper delivery. In 1773 the Pennsylvania Chronicle was finally forced to go out of business [40] when the Crown post refused to deliver the newspaper in the mail. Goddard in revolutionary defiance circumvented these efforts by designing an alternative, and distinctly American, postal system and challenged the Crown post, and the principles of free speech that it was supposedly founded on, by creating the Constitutional Post which among other things involved establishing a postal route in and between Philadelphia and New York. Goddard's Constitutional Post came into use right after the commencement of American Revolution at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He chose for his main Post Office to be housed in the London Coffee House in Philadelphia, a meeting place for merchants which became the center of much of the political life of the city prior to and during the revolution.[41]

Washington-Lee controversyEdit

General Charles Lee was passed over for command of the Continental Army by the Continental Congress who on June 15, 1775, unanimously appointed George Washington to be their commander.[42] A disappointed Lee felt that the command should have been given to him and came to publicly criticize Washington as "..a certain great man who is damnably deficient", following Washington's defeats at the battles of White Plains and Fort Washington, in the fall of 1776.[43]

Some years later Lee had requested Goddard to publish his account of the matter. In the July 6, 1779 issue of the Maryland Journal Goddard had printed General Lee's “Some Queries, Political and Military”, which consisted of a three-volume work that contained twenty-five pointed questions about the management of the war by Congress, and the conduct of George Washington in particular.[44] The “Queries” of the court-martialed general incited a Baltimore mob led by three Continental officers who confronted Goddard on the evening of July 8 at his home and demanded he surrender and appear in front of the Whig club. Goddard grabbed his sword and called Eleazer Oswald[f] to his side and insisted that he not be treated in such a manner. He agreed to meet the club members in a civilized manner at a local coffee house but was doubtful that they would accept his offer. A mob led by Colonel Samuel Smith caught up with him later and carried him away. Overwhelmed and helpless Goddard agreed to publicly apologize for publishing Lee's attack on Washington in his paper, which Goddard later repudiated. Goddard and Oswald informed the state authorities of the mob attacks while defending Lee. They also demanded public protection for themselves and their right to freedom of the press, but ultimately had their demands rebuffed.[46] In the July 16 issue of the Maryland Journal they subsequently published an acrimonious account about why and how they were treated. They championed Lee's cause, printed the correspondence between Oswald and Smith, and retracted the apology that was coerced from Goddard.[47] The long-term consequence of this episode was that Goddard and General Lee became good friends.[48][38]

In September 1782, Lee, on his way to Philadelphia, stopped for a few days in Baltimore to visit the Goddards. He went on to Philadelphia, where he died October 2.[49] It is not known exactly how the papers of General Lee came into the hands of his friend Goddard. Goddard's original plans to publish the papers never reached fruition.[48] Knowing the controversial and critical nature of the work and that its publication was likely to cause trouble,[50] Goddard, in a letter of May 30, 1785, wrote to Washington informing him that he had received a letter from Lee asking him to publish his work which roundly criticized Washington. Goddard enclosed a hand-written copy of the proposed title page on June 14 and later sent Washington a printed title page as part of his prospectus of Lee's projected three-volume work. The title page read: Miscellaneous Collections from the Papers of the late Major General Charles Lee.[37][48] Goddard's letter to Washington from Baltimore dated May 30, 1785, said that the Manuscript Papers of General Lee came into his hands after his decease and that he was taking care to prepare them for publicizing by removing offensive material.[48] Washington, in a reply letter of June 11, 1785 to Goddard, referred to the news he had received from him objectively and wrote of the his actions that were now in question.[51]

Goddard continued to publish his paper in Baltimore for thirteen more years and was never again harassed.[52] After Lee died in 1782 he left Goddard, his good friend, a sizable portion of his estate.[53] Goddard was a staunch anti-imperialist and an ardent defender of the fundamental American ideals of Freedom of the Press.[22][54] He fought both the Loyalists and the Patriot to maintain freedom of the press and freedom of expression.[6]

The Constitutional PostEdit

Credit is roundly given to Benjamin Franklin for being the architect of a postal system that is still in use today in the United States.[25] Franklin had made significant contributions to the postal system in the colonies while serving as the postmaster of Philadelphia from 1737 to 1753, and as joint postmaster general of the colonies from 1753 to 1774. Franklin's partnership with William Goddard in 1775 however played an integral role in the development of his ideas for a national postal system that was soon to be United colonies. Goddard's ideas for a postal system were spurred by the Crown Post authorities who were manipulating the mail of the colonies as the revolution became more eminent. Goddard and his associates were forced to create an alternative system that came to be known as The Constitutional Post that would provide mail service to the colonies between New York and Philadelphia.[55][56]

In March, I774, with the colonies in dire need of an independent postal system, the committee of correspondence in Boston wrote to the committee in Salem suggesting that independent postal arrangements be set up, and introduced Goddard as a capable man this undertaking. Goddard was the son of William Giles Goddard, the postmaster of New London, and was himself once postmaster of Providence for two years. His mission to Salem proved successful, as the committee there replied a few days later to the committee in Boston, declaring that the act of the British Parliament establishing a post-office in America was a dangerous prospect and demanded peremptory action.[57][27][58][11]

Goddard had presented his plan for a postal system to Congress on October 5, 1774, nearly two years before the Declaration of Independence was given to England. Among other proposed reforms, Goddard stressed the idea that the various Constitutional Post Offices should be under the jurisdiction of a central government.[59][g] Congress had to deal with other urgent matters and had to delay Goddard's proposed plan until after the Battles of Lexington and Concord in the Spring of 1775.

On July 26, 1775, the plan, now known as the "Constitutional Post", was adopted and implemented, thus assuring communication between the colonies and keeping them informed of various events during the conflict with Britain. Distrustful of the Crown the colonial populous was turning to and using the postal system now provided by Goddard. Ultimately Goddard and his revolutionary post were so successful they finally forced the Crown post out of business in the American colonies on Christmas Day, 1775.[56] Goddard's Constitutional Post proved to be a success and by 1775, Goddard's post system was flourishing with 30 post offices delivering mail between Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Colonial Williamsburg. Goddard's plan for a colonial post office would be one that was established and maintained by popular subscription and would be managed and controlled by a private committee that would be elected annually by the subscribers. The committee would appoint postmasters, determine postal routes, hire post-riders and fix the rates of postage. In what was to Goddard an unexpected turn of events, when the Continental Congress on July 26, 1775, authorized a post office run by the government it passed over Goddard and instead named Benjamin Franklin as the first American Postmaster General.[61]

Pass, signed by Postmaster General Benjamin Franklin, appointed Goddard as Surveyor of the Post,[62] giving him the authority to travel as needed to investigate and inspect postal routes and to ensure the delivery of mail.[56][63]

Goddard, a one time apprentice of Franklin and who was naturally influenced by his years of experience with the colonial postal system, still felt that he was the general creator of the postal system then in use in the colonies. Goddard was a candidate for the position of postmaster-general, but instead Franklin was chosen. He then sought the secretaryship but was passed over when Franklin selected his son-in-law, Richard Bache. Franklin, however, recognized and appreciated Goddard's many efforts in organizing the colonial post-office system and appointed him as Surveyor of the Posts.[64] Naturally he was disappointed when Franklin was given the position of Postmaster-General by the Continental Congress. However he naturally conceded to Franklin, who was 36 years his senior, and to his many years of experience as postmasters and reluctantly but graciously agreed to serve instead as Riding Surveyor for the new U.S. Post Office. Franklin drew up a pass that allowed Goddard to travel at his discretion in his new position. Franklin authored and signed the pass and presented it to Goddard.[56] When the newly created American government under the U.S. Constitution began, the American postal system had about seventy-five post offices and 1,875 miles of post roads to serve a total colonial population of three million people.[55] Franklin served as postmaster for one year at which time the Postmaster's position was given to Richard Bache, the son-in-law of Franklin. Deeply disappointment for being passed over again Goddard resigned. Franklin would later leave the Bonds he had on the Goddards to Bache in his last will and testament of 1788. Franklin died in 1790.

It was not until after the adoption of the Constitution in 1789 that a law passed on September 22, 1789, which created the federal Post Office under the new government of the United States and authorized the appointment of a Postmaster General who was subject to the direction of the President [65] Four days later President Washington appointed the post of Postmaster General to Samuel Osgood who became the first Postmaster General under the new United States Constitution. Along with the efforts of Benjamin Franklin who pioneered the colonial mail system, Goddard and the Constitutional Post influenced Franklin greatly and helped him in the endeavor of producing a system of mail delivery for the united colonies that is still in use today in the United States and elsewhere.[41]

Feeling less than inspired over his appointment to Surveyor of the Posts, Goddard, in letter to Congress, dated June 21, 1776, had recited his services in the establishment of the Constitutional Post Office, and reminded the delegates that they had given the Postmaster General no authority to reimburse him and his friends for their outlay of money in "establishing Postmasters, hiring Riders...", and establishing post offices throughout the colonies. Wanting to serve his country at the onset of war, and needing the opportunity to replenish his financial situation, he asked the Congress for an appointment as a lieutenant colonel. The Congress passed on his letter to the Board of War. The Board subsequently referred Goddard's appeal to General Washington, who, on July 29, 1776, in a letter to Congress, he expressed the belief that the induction of Mr. Goddard "into the Army as Lieutt. Colo, would be attended with endless confusion." Thereafter no more was heard from Goddard about his military aspirations..[66]

Later yearsEdit

While working for the post-office, his sister Mary, in his absence, managed and edited the Maryland Journal single-handedly. Because resources were scarce due to the Revolutionary War the paper for the Journal became scarce, so in 1778, Goddard started up a paper-mill in Baltimore, and made his own paper. In its issue of May 5, 1778, appears the following notice: "Rags for the paper-mill near this town are much wanted, and the highest price will be given for them by the printer," and again "Cash will be given in exchange for rags at this office."[58][67] Sometime after mid-1778, Goddard was joined at the Maryland Journal by Eleazer Oswald a former American artillery officer. Oswald printed criticisms of George Washington by the disgraced general Charles Lee and this led to public demonstrations against him. Oswald left the Journal and moved to Philadelphia in 1782.[68]

Goddard's relationship with his sister Mary Katherine became strained in his last years, possibly over money issues. In January 1784, his name was added to the colophon of the newspaper while his sister's name was dropped. Goddard continued to be the head of the newspaper and his sister remained in the city as a publisher. Goddard and his sister had published competing almanacs for 1785, which led him levying attacks at both his sister's almanac and her character. Mary sold her interest in the Maryland Journal in 1785 that ended her business dealings with her brother and the newspaper she had assisted in establishing.[3]

Goddard on May 25, 1785, married at Cranston,[69] Abigail Angell of Johnston, Rhode Island, the daughter of Brigadier-General James Angell and Mary Mawney Angell. They had 5 children: 4 daughters and 1 son. In 1803 he left Johnston for Providence, so that his children might have more educational advantages. His son, William Giles Goddard, graduated from Brown University in 1812 and received an appointment of Professor of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics.[25]

Goddard in his retirement helped with the preparation of Isaiah Thomas's History of Printing in America (1810)[69] and was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813.[70] He lived in Providence until his death, December 23, 1817, aged seventy-seven years. He is buried in the North Burial Ground at Providence, Rhode Island. Goddard's son, William Giles Goddard, wrote his father's obituary for the Rhode Island American newspaper. It contained a passage which read, "The first years of his long life were passed amid the turmoil of useful activities - the last in the bosom of domestic quiet."[71]

Book worksEdit

  • The Partnership: Or the History of the Rise and Progress of the Pennsylvania Chronicle (1770)
  • Andrew Marvell's Second Address to the Inhabitants of Philadelphia (1773)
  • The Prowess of the Whig Club, and the Manceuvers of Legion (1777)

See alsoEdit


  • Adelman, Joseph M. (December 2010). "A Constitutional Conveyance of Intelligence, Public and Private": The Post Office, the Business of Printing, and the American Revolution". Enterprise & Society. Cambridge University Press. 11 (4): 711–754. JSTOR 23701246.
  • —— (Fall 2013). "Trans-Atlantic Migration and the Printing Trade in Revolutionary America". Early American Studies. University of Pennsylvania Press. 11 (3): 516–544. JSTOR 23547682.
  • Huebner, Francis C. (1906). "Our Postal System". Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C. Historical Society of Washington, D.C. 9: 126–174. JSTOR 40066939.
  • Leonard, Eugenie Andruss (October 1950). "Paper as a Critical Commodity during the American Revolution". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. University of Pennsylvania Press. 74 (4): 488–499. JSTOR 20088183.
  • Malone, Dumas (1931). Dictionary of American Biography. 7. Charles Scribner's Sons. OCLC 928819706.
  • Smith, William (January 1916). "The Colonial Post-Office". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical Association. 21 (2): 258–275. JSTOR 1835049.
  • Zimmerman, John L. (October 1954). "Benjamin Franklin and the Pennsylvania Chronicle". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. University of Pennsylvania Press. 81 (4): 351–364. JSTOR 20089013.

Online sources

Further readingEdit

  • Adelman, Joseph M. (Fall 2013). "Trans-Atlantic Migration and the Printing Trade in Revolutionary America". Early American Studies. University of Pennsylvania Press. 11 (3): 516–544. JSTOR 23547682.
  • Fracus, Ralph (May 2006). "The Emergence of the American Colonial Press". Pennsylvania Legacies. University of Pennsylvania Press. 6 (1): 11–15. JSTOR 27765021.


  1. ^ Later, on September 27, 1787, the Providence Gazette under Carter printed the U.S. Constitution on the front page.
  2. ^ Carter was also taught the printing trade while serving as an apprentice under Benjamin Franklin and who later was appointed Postmaster of Providence by Franklin.
  3. ^ Hall was a printer and business partner with Benjamin Franklin with the Pennsylvania Gazette.
  4. ^ Hasselach, returning to Germany on a business venture in the winter months of 1769-1770, was lost at sea.[24]
  5. ^ They were sometimes referred to by others as "Goddard" post offices[36]
  6. ^ Oswald served as Charles Lee's senior artillery officer at the Battle of Monmouth on June 28, 1778.[45]
  7. ^ For an outline of the eight proposed reforms proposed by Goddard see Huebner, 1906, Our Postal System[60]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Malone, 1931 p. 341
  2. ^ Thomas, 1874, Vol I, p. 203
  3. ^ a b "Baltimore Heritage". Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e Malone, 1931 p. 342
  5. ^ a b c d Ashley, 1985, p. 249
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i McKerns, 1989, p. 274
  7. ^ Thomas, 1874, p. 202
  8. ^ Thomas, 1874, p. 305
  9. ^ United Kingdom Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth "consistent series" supplied in Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2018). "What Was the U.K. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  10. ^ Malone, 1931 p. 341
  11. ^ a b "The Library of Congress". Archived from the original on December 21, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  12. ^ Frasca, 2006, p. 148
  13. ^ Thomas, 1874, Vol I, p. 83
  14. ^ Carroll, 1907, pp. XXXVI, 5, 9
  15. ^ "Eighteenth-Century American Newspapers in the Library of Congress". Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  16. ^ Woods, 2019, pp. 1-5
  17. ^ Ashley, 1985, p. 251
  18. ^ Thomas, 1874, p. 295
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Ashley, 1985, p. 253
  20. ^ Frasca, 2006, p. 147
  21. ^ Miner, 1962, p. 98
  22. ^ a b Adelman, 2010, p. 725
  23. ^ Goddard, 1770, title page
  24. ^ Wroth, 1922, p. 114
  25. ^ a b c d Culter, 1914, p. 1835
  26. ^ Wroth, 1922, p. 114
  27. ^ a b Huebner, 1906, p. 135-137
  28. ^ Bellis, 2006, Essay
  29. ^ Cutter 1914, p. 1835.
  30. ^ Scharf, 1874, p. 81
  31. ^ Miner, 1962, p. 6
  32. ^ Taylor, Jordan E. (July 17, 2020). "Enquire of the Printer: Newspaper Advertising and the Moral Economy of the North American Slave Trade, 1704–1807". Early American Studies. 18 (3): 287–323. doi:10.1353/eam.2020.0008. ISSN 1559-0895. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020.
  33. ^ Mary Goddard; Smithsonian National Postal Museum: Women in the U.S. Postal System Archived August 2, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "American Public University". Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved August 6, 2010.
  35. ^ Huebner, 1906, p. 133
  36. ^ a b Huebner, 1906, p. 134
  37. ^ a b Freeman, 1954 {1848] , p. 45
  38. ^ a b Grizzard, 2002, p. 185
  39. ^ "Dalphy I. Fagerstrom, Bethel College, Saint Paul". Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  40. ^ "William Goddard, Journalist; Great-Grandparent of Mr. C. Oliver Iselin's Bride. Full article links to PDF file". New York Times. July 15, 1894. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012.
  41. ^ a b "Independence Hall Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, founded 1942". Archived from the original on June 26, 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
  42. ^ Taylor, 2015, p. 142
  43. ^ Taylor, 2015, p. 166
  44. ^ Miner, 1962, p. 169
  45. ^ Alden, 1951, pp. 217, 282
  46. ^ Alden, 1951, pp. 282-283
  47. ^ Alden, 1951, p. 283
  48. ^ a b c d Washington to Goddard, May 30, 1785
  49. ^ Miner, 1962, p. 174
  50. ^ Alden, 1951, p. 281
  51. ^ Washington to Goddard, June 11, 1785
  52. ^ Alden, 1951, p. 283
  53. ^ Charles Lee memoirs, 1792, p. 181
  54. ^ Miner, 1962, p. 3
  55. ^ a b American Heritage Magazine, Essay
  56. ^ a b c d "Smithsonian National Postal Museum". Archived from the original on June 23, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  57. ^ Smith, 1916, p. 274
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