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William Crapo "Billy" Durant (December 8, 1861 – March 18, 1947) was a leading pioneer of the United States automobile industry, who created a system in which a company held multiple marques - each seemingly independent, with different automobile lines - bound under a unified corporate holding company. Mr. Durant, along with Frederic L. Smith, co-founded General Motors, as well as Chevrolet with Louis Chevrolet. He also founded Frigidaire.

William C. Durant
WilliamCDurant.jpg
Born
William Crapo Durant

(1861-12-08)December 8, 1861
DiedMarch 18, 1947(1947-03-18) (aged 85)
OccupationBusiness
Spouse(s)Clara Miller Pitt (div.)[1]
Catherine Lederer (1886-1947)[2]
ChildrenMargery Pitt Durant (1887-1969)[3]
Russell Clifford Durant (1890-1937)
Parent(s)William Clark and Rebecca Folger (née Crapo) Durant

Contents

BiographyEdit

Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Durant was the son of William Clark Durant and Rebecca Folger Crapo, who was born to a wealthy Massachusetts family of French descent. His mother, Rebecca, was the daughter of Michigan governor Henry H. Crapo. William dropped out of high school to work in his grandfather's lumberyard. He started out as a cigar salesman in Flint, Michigan, and eventually moved to selling carriages.

In 1886, Durant partnered with Josiah Dallas Dort and founded Flint Road Cart Company eventually transforming $2,000 in start-up capital into a $2-million company with sales worldwide.[4] By 1890, the Durant-Dort Carriage Company, based in Flint, had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles and by the start of the 20th century, was the largest in the US.[5]

Durant was highly skeptical of automobiles, feeling the bad smell of burnt fuel, along with the engines' loud sounds , made them inherently dangerous to the point where Durant would not let his daughter ride in one. By 1900, public outcry over government regulation of gasoline-powered horseless carriages was significant. Durant noticed the general publics' anger at this situation, and rather than relying on government regulations to improve their safety, he saw it as an opportunity to create a company which could improve the safety of this new class of transportation.

To begin this massive endeavour, Durant first set out to purchase Buick, then, a local car company with few sales and large debts.[4]

Durant conceived the modern system of automobile dealer franchises.[5]

BuickEdit

From his holdings in Durant-Dort Carriage Company, Durant was a millionaire[6] On November 1, 1904 Durant assumed control of the troubled Buick Motor Company and used the financial and manufacturing resources of Durant-Dort to correct Buick's course.[7] With Durant pushing and marketing Buick name, the company was able to become the best-selling automobile in America, outperforming earlier leaders Ford Motor Company, Cadillac, and Oldsmobile, and despite having no manufacturing line and only a few extant cars, orders tallied over 1100 - all of this by the time of the 1905 New York Automobile Show.[7] Durant and Samuel McLaughlin, McLaughlin's being the largest carriage manufacturer in Canada, signed a 15-year contract to build Buick power trains at cost-plus pricing.

General MotorsEdit

Utilising Buick as the base, along with a 15-year contract for motors to be provided to R. S. McLaughlin, Durant envisioned the creation of a large automobile company, which would manufacture several independent maques and control subsidiary component-making companies, much as Durant-Dort had done for carriage- building with R S McLaughlin.[6]

On September 16, 1907, Durant and McLaughlin opened an escrow account, with which they founded General Motors Holding Company. They also exchanged a large amount of Buick stock for an equivalent amount of McLaughlin's eponymous company stock, making McLaughlin one of General Motors' biggest shareholders.[6]

In 1909, Durant's GM bought Cadillac, Oldsmobile, and Oakland Motor Car (eventually replaced by Pontiac), along with many parts-manufacturing companies, paint and varnish companies, etc., and brought them all into the fold; the General Motors moniker.

By 1910, the rapid-fire acquisitions Durant had made caught up with the business, which caused Durant and the corporation to have become grossly overextended with so many imprudent acquisitions. The corporation faced a cash shortage, and in the aftermath, Durant was forced out of the company.[6]

But Durant would not to be bowed and he backed Louis Chevrolet's eponymous company in 1911, with J. Dallas Dort serving as the vice-president and director of the company.[8] In 1913, Dort stepped down as vice-president of Chevrolet,[8] and in 1914 Durant disposed of his share of the Durant-Dort Carriage Company.[9] By 1915 R S McLaughlin was building Chevrolet to allow that 1916, Durant had leveraged Chevrolet's sales to regain control of General Motors, and he went on to lead GM until 1920.[6]

Other acquisitionsEdit

 
Durant, center, chatting with President Hinz of the Lowell, Massachusetts, Automobile Club in 1909

On October 26, 1909, General Motors Holding acquired the Cartercar Company, founded four years earlier in Jackson, Michigan, by Byron J. Carter. In explaining the reason he purchased Cartercar, Durant said:

"They say I shouldn't have bought Cartercar. Well, how was anyone to know that Carter wasn't to be the thing? It had the friction drive and no other car had it. How could I tell what these engineers would say next?" By the time Durant had regained control of General Motors in 1916, the GM board had already decided to discontinue the Cartercar, largely because sales never approached the 1000-2000 annually that Durant had predicted. The GM board decided to use the factory instead to produce the Oakland.[10]

Durant had arranged an $8-million deal to buy Ford in 1909, but the bankers turned him down and the board of directors of General Motors dismissed him.[11]

Both Durant and rival Henry Ford foresaw the automobile becoming a mass-market item. Ford followed the course of the basic Model T, and had said "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black."[12] Durant, however, drawing on his experience in the carriage business, sought to create automobiles targeted to various incomes and tastes.[13] This brought about his plans to merge Buick with various other companies to serve this purpose. He purchased Cadillac, and in 1908 formed General Motors by consolidating 13 car companies in 1918 and 10 parts-and-accessories manufacturers.[4]

ChevroletEdit

When Durant became financially overextended and banking interests assumed control, forcing him out of GM Holding, in 1910, he immediately set out to create "another GM", starting with the Little car, named after its founder, William H. Little. His initial intention was to compete with the Ford Model T, which was beginning the start of its impending popularity. Unsatisfied with this approach, he dropped it. In Canada, on 30 September, 1910, after obtaining a loan of $52,935.25 (cosigned by R S McLaughlin), went into partnership with Louis Chevrolet in 1911, starting the Chevrolet company. In 1914, a disagreement with Louis Chevrolet resulted in Durant buying out his partner.[5] Durant went to McLaughlin in 1915 to put Chevrolet in Canada and with the shares being bought up at 5-to-1 and 7-to-1, McLaughlin and Durant with other shareholders had enough stock to reclaim Durant's old job. McLaughlin had no problem with his friend back at the helm. McLaughlin went on building Chevrolet and built his Buicks in Canada without conflict to his Buick contract. General Motors Corporation was started in Canada just prior to R S McLaughlin exchanging his Chevrolet Stocks for GM at this time with Durant putting Pierre du Pont in charge, with McLaughlin serving as director and vice president of the newly incorporated General Motors Corporation in 1918.

The venture proved highly successful for Durant, and he was able to buy enough shares in GM to regain control, becoming its president in 1916. During his presidency (1916–1920), Durant brought the Chevrolet product line into the corporation (1919), as well as Fisher Body and Frigidaire.[4] In 1920, he finally lost control of GM to the DuPont and McLaughlin shareholders, paying out $21,000,000 back to his friends.

While in charge of Chevrolet, Durant acquired other companies, including Republic Motors, mainly to produce Chevrolet (the Pennsylvania State University archives hold the information on GM 1918-1975).

He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1968.

Vertical integrationEdit

Drawing on experience gleaned in the carriage-making business 20 years earlier, Durant assembled a collection of parts and components manufacturers (Hyatt Roller Bearing, New Departure Manufacturing, Dayton Engineering Laboratories (later Delco Electronics Corporation), Harrison Radiator Corporation, Remy Electric, Jaxon Steel Products, and Perlman Rim) into a new company;United Motors Company, making Alfred P. Sloan of Hyatt Roller Bearing Company the president. In 1918, United Motors was sold to General Motors for $44,065,000. Sloan rose to president of GM in the 1920s, going on to build the company into the world's largest automaker.[14][15]

Durant MotorsEdit

In 1921, Durant established a new company, Durant Motors, initially with one brand. Within two years, it had several marques (including the Durant, Star (also called Rugby), Flint, and Eagle),[5] rivalling the range offered by General Motors. Part of the new empire included a factory in Leaside, Ontario, for Canadian production.

As he had with General Motors, Durant acquired a range of companies whose cars were aimed at different markets, and therefore, levels of affordability and luxury. The lowest ('entry' tier) was the Star, aimed at the person who would otherwise buy the obsolescent Model T. Durant cars were mid-market, and the company's entire structure was purposefully very similar with GM; the Princeton line (designed, prototyped, and marketed but never produced) competed with Packard and Cadillac, the ultra-luxurious Locomobile being top of the line. Durant was unable to duplicate his former success, and the financial woes of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression ultimately proved to be insunmountable, and the company failed in 1933.[16]

Wall Street and later yearsEdit

 
The mausoleum of William C. Durant

In the 1920s, Durant became a major "player" on Wall Street and on Black Tuesday joined with members of the Rockefeller family and other financial giants to buy large quantities of stocks, against the advice of friends,[5] to demonstrate to the public their confidence in the stock market. His effort proved costly and failed to stop the market slide. By 1936, the 75-year-old Durant was bankrupt.[5]

After the fall of Durant Motors, Durant and his second wife, Catherine Lederer Durant, lived on a pension provided by R. S. McLaughlin, and Messrs. Marr and Dupont as arranged by Alfred P. Sloan at $10,000.00 (worth approximately $173,000 in 2018's currency)[17] a year on behalf of General Motors. He suffered a stroke in 1942, which left him "a semi-invalid",[5] and managed a bowling alley, slinging hamburgers in Flint until his death in 1947 in New York, which is where many people believed he spent his last days. He was interred in a private mausoleum in Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York City. He was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1996.

Durant Park in Lansing, Michigan is named after him, as is Waterford Durant High School in Waterford, Michigan.

Durant's CastleEdit

During the late 1920s, Durant's son, Russell Clifford (Cliff) Durant and his third wife, Lea Gapsky Durant, started construction on a personal castle and private airstrip in Roscommon, Michigan, along the south branch of the Au Sable River. The 54-room mansion burned to the ground under mysterious circumstances on February 6, 1931. The Durants never inhabited it. Arson was suspected, allegedly at the hands of trade unionists, whom Durant had refused to recognize.[18]

After Lea's mysterious disappearance in 1934, and Cliff's death in 1937, Cliff's fourth wife, Charlotte Phillips Durant, sold the land to George W. Mason (of Nash Motors), an automotive executive. Upon his death, it was bequeathed to the State of Michigan as a nature preserve, the Mason Tract. All that remains of the castle and private airstrip are the old foundation works. Today, a canoe landing and short history of the castle are on the site.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Invisible Manor History: Early Owner". Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  2. ^ "University of Michigan-Flint: Henry Howland Crapo Family". Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  3. ^ "GW and Foggy Bottom Historical Encyclopedia: Margery Durant". Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d Dr. Burton W. Folsom (1998-09-08). "Billy Durant and the Founding of General Motors [Mackinac Center]". Mackinac.org. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Yates, Brock. "10 Best Moguls", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p.46.
  6. ^ a b c d e Christian, Ralph J. (March 1977). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Durant-Dort Carriage Company Office / Arrowhead Veterans Club" (pdf). National Park Service. and Accompanying three photos, exterior, from 1977 (32 KB)
  7. ^ a b Pelfrey, William (2006). Billy, Alfred, and General Motors: The Story of Two Unique Men, a Legendary Company, and a Remarkable Time in American History. AMACOM. pp. 83–85, 95–96, 106. ISBN 978-0-8144-0869-8. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  8. ^ a b Sherosky, Frank (December 23, 2009). "Remembering Josiah Dallas Dort and his automobile". Detroit Automotive Technology Examiner.
  9. ^ Wood, Edwin Orin (1916), History of Genesee County, Michigan: Her People, Industries and Institutions, Volume 1, Federal Publishers, p. 778, retrieved April 7, 2013
  10. ^ Pelfrey, William. Billy, Alfred, and General Motors (New York, New York: AMACOM, 2006), p.151.
  11. ^ "Happy 100th Birthday, General Motors". Motor Trend. August 2008.
  12. ^ Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1922), My Life and Work, Garden City, New York, USA: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc. Various republications, including ISBN 9781406500189. Original is public domain in U.S. Also available at Google Books. Chapter IV.
  13. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 18, 26-7, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  14. ^ [1] Archived October 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Full text of "The turning wheel; the story of General Motors through twenty-five years, 1908-1933"". Archive.org. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  16. ^ "Library of Congress: William Crapo Durant, 1861-1947". Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  17. ^ US Inflation Calculator, http://www.usinflationcalculator.com/
  18. ^ Quinn, James (May 31, 2009). "GM: Its rise, fall and future". The Daily Telegraph. London.

Further readingEdit

  • Pelfrey, William (2007). Billy, Alfred and General Motors. Amacom Publishing.
  • Madsen, Axel (2000). The Deal Maker: How William C. Durant Made General Motors. Wiley Publishing.
  • Gustin, Lawrence (2008). Billy Durant: Creator of General Motors. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-03302-7.
  • Weisberger, Bernard A. The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979. Print.

External linksEdit