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DefinitionEdit

Coronavirus disease 2019 (or COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.[1]

Covid 19

OriginEdit

The disease was first identified in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province in December of 2019. Since then, it has spread around the world and resulted in a global pandemic.[2][3]

Symptoms 1Edit

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 infection are fever, cough and shortness of breath.[4]

Symptoms 2Edit

But other symptoms can occur too, including the loss of smell, a sore throat, muscle pain, a wet cough, diarrhea and abdominal pain.[5][6][7]

Prognosis 1Edit

Most cases are mild and do not need hospital care, however, some COVID infections will lead to viral pneumonia and the failure of the respiratory or other body systems.[2][8] For those cases, hospitalization is frequently needed for breathing support, with oxygen or a mechanical ventilator, along with therapy to support the circulatory system, kidneys, and other body systems.

EpidemiologyEdit

As of 30 May 2020, more than 5,910,000[9] cases have been reported in 188 countries and territories,[10] resulting in over 364 thousand deaths.[9] More than 2.49 million people have recovered.[9]

Spread 1Edit

The virus spreads easily and sustainably between people, more efficiently than influenza, and less easily than measles. It is mainly spread during close contact, and by small droplets produced during coughing sneezing or talking.[6][11][12]

Spread 2Edit

During close contact, 1 to 2 metres or 3 to 6 feet, people catch the disease from breathing in contaminated droplets.

Spread 3Edit

When the contaminated droplets fall to floors or surfaces, less commonly, they can remain infectious, if people touch contaminated surfaces and then their eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands. Some people have been infected and recovered without showing symptoms, and such people may be able to spread COVID-19.

OnsetEdit

The average time from exposure to onset of symptoms is five days, but it can vary from as little as two days to as many as fourteen.[4][13]

Diagnosis 1Edit

The standard method for diagnosis of active COVID-19 infection is with a swab of the back of the nose and back of the throat, which is then tested for the virus using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (or PCR) process.[14]

Diagnosis 2Edit

The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia.[15][16]

Prevention 1Edit

The recommended measures to prevent infection include frequent hand washing, social distancing, covering coughs and sneezes with a tissue or inner elbow, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. Social distancing involves maintaining a physical distance from others and has been a key tool used by communities to slow down the intensity of the pandemic.[17][18]

Prevention 2Edit

The use of a surgical mask is recommended for anyone suspected of having the virus to prevent the spread of infected droplets. Caregivers should also use masks, faceshields, and other personal protective equipment when caring for people with active COVID-19, and high filtration masks, like the N95, for any activities that may generate aerosol from an infected patient.[19] Recommendations for, and against mask use by the general public, vary by country and region.[20][21][22]

Management 1Edit

Currently there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19.[6]

Management 2Edit

Management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures with hospitalization for severe cases.[23]

Society 1Edit

The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern[24][25] on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[3]

Society 2Edit

Local transmission of the disease has been recorded in most countries across all six WHO regions.[26]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b Hui, D. S.; I. Azhar E.; Madani, T. A.; Ntoumi, F.; Kock, R.; Dar, O.; Ippolito, G.; Mchugh, T. D.; Memish, Z. A.; Drosten, Christian; Zumla, A.; Petersen, E. (February 2020). "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health—The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". Int J Infect Dis. 91: 264–66. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. PMID 31953166.
  3. ^ a b "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". www.cdc.gov. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  5. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Symptoms". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b c "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  7. ^ Hopkins, Claire. "Loss of sense of smell as marker of COVID-19 infection". Ear, Nose and Throat surgery body of United Kingdom. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  8. ^ "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  9. ^ a b c "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Coronavirus Update (Live): 1001069 Cases and 51378 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Outbreak - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  11. ^ "Q & A on COVID-19". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  12. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  13. ^ Velavan, T. P.; Meyer, C. G. (March 2020). "The COVID-19 epidemic". Tropical Medicine & International Health. n/a (n/a): 278–80. doi:10.1111/tmi.13383. PMID 32052514.
  14. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  15. ^ Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, Cheng H, Deng T, Fan YP, et al. (February 2020). "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)". Military Medical Research. 7 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6. PMC 7003341. PMID 32029004.
  16. ^ "CT provides best diagnosis for COVID-19". ScienceDaily. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  17. ^ "Advice for public". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  18. ^ "Guidance on social distancing for everyone in the UK". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  19. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  20. ^ Feng, Shuo; Shen, Chen; Xia, Nan; Song, Wei; Fan, Mengzhen; Cowling, Benjamin J. (2020-03-20). "Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 0. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X. ISSN 2213-2600. PMID 32203710.
  21. ^ "When and how to use masks". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  22. ^ Tait, Robert (2020-03-30). "Czechs get to work making masks after government decree". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 2020-03-31.
  23. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  24. ^ "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  25. ^ Mahtani, S.; Berger, M.; O'Grady, S.; Iati, M. (6 February 2020). "Hundreds of evacuees to be held on bases in California; Hong Kong and Taiwan restrict travel from mainland China". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  26. ^ "WHO Situation Report #65" (PDF). WHO. 25 March 2020.