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Help:IPA for Russian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Russian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Russian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Russian. See Russian alphabet for help converting spelling to pronunciation.

Russian distinguishes soft (palatalized) and hard (unpalatalized or plain) consonants. Soft consonants, denoted by a superscript j, ⟨ʲ⟩, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like the articulation of the y sound in yes. /j, ɕː, tɕ/ are always soft, whereas /ʂ, ts, ʐ/ are always hard.

Consonants
IPA Examples IPA Examples English approximation
b бок бе́глый boot; beautiful
d дом де́лает do; dew (UK)
dz плацда́рм[1] heads
дочь бы[2] jug
f фата́; вы́ставка;[3] Че́хов;[4] фе́я; червь[4] fool; few
ɡ говорю́ ɡʲ герба́рий goo; argue
ɣ Го́споди[5]
j есть [je-]; ёмкий [ˈjɵ-]; ю́мор [ˈju-]; я [ja]; то́лстый[6] yes, boy
k кость кишки́ scar; skew
l луна́[7] лес; мысль pill; lean
m мы́ло мя́со moot; mute
n нос нёс; ко́рень noon; newt (for some dialects)
p пыль; зуб[4] пе́пел; зыбь[4] pool; pew
r а́рфа; сорт гарь; зверь trilled r, like in Spanish
s соба́ка; глаз[4] си́ний; здесь; есть; грызть[3] soup; assume (for some dialects)
ʂ широ́кий; что; муж;[4] ɕː щего́л; счита́ть; мужчи́на[8] shop; wish sheep
t тот; во́дка;[3] лёд[4] тере́ть; дитя́; грудь[4] stand; stew (UK; for some dialects)
ts цель cats
чай; течь chip
v ваш; его́[9] вести́ voodoo; view
x ходить; Бог[5] хина; лёгкий[3][5] loch (Scottish); huge (for some dialects)
z заезжать зелёный; просьба[3] zoo; azure (for some dialects)
ʐ жест[10] ʑː вещдо́к rouge
Stressed vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a трава́ father
æ пять[11] pat
ɑ па́лка[12] palm
e пень[11] met
ɛ жест; э́то
i си́него meet
ɨ ты; ши́шка roses (for some dialects)
o о́блако chore
ɵ тётя[11] bird
u пу́ля boot
ʉ чуть; лю́ди[11] choose
Unstressed vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
ɐ паро́м; сообража́ть; тропа́ bud
ə ко́жа; ше́я; о́блако about
ɪ тяжёлый; эта́п; четы́ре bit
ɨ дыша́ть; жена́; го́ды roses (for some dialects)
ʉ чудеса́[11] youth
ʊ мужчи́на put
Suprasegmental
IPA Example Explanation
ˈ эта́п
[ɪˈtap]
Stress mark (placed before the stressed syllable)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ [dz] appears only in surnames (such as Дзю́ба), loanwords and as an allophone of /ts/ before voiced consonants.
  2. ^ [] appears only as an allophone of /tɕ/ before voiced consonants. Sometimes used in foreign words such as Джон.
  3. ^ a b c d e Consonants in consonant clusters are assimilated in voicing if the final consonant in the sequence is an obstruent. All consonants become voiceless if the final consonant is voiceless or voiced if the final consonant is voiced (Halle 1959:31).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h The voiced obstruents /b, bʲ, d, dʲ, ɡ, v, vʲ, z, zʲ, ʐ, ʑː/ are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
  5. ^ a b c г⟩ is usually pronounced [ɣ] or [x] in some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as Го́споди! and Бог, and in the interjections ага́, ого́. /ɡ/ devoices and lenites to [x] before voiceless obstruents (dissimilation) in the word roots -мягк- or -мягч-, -легк- or -легч-, -тягч- and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -ногт-, -когт-, кто.
  6. ^ The soft vowel letters ⟨е, ë, ю, я⟩ represent /je, jo, ju, ja/ when initial or after other vowels or a yer. When these vowels are unstressed (save for ⟨ë⟩, which is never unstressed), the /j/ may be deleted.
  7. ^ /l/ is often strongly pharyngealized [ɫ], but that feature is not distinctive (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:187-188).
  8. ^ щ⟩ is sometimes pronounced as [ɕː] or [ɕɕ] and sometimes as [ɕtɕ], but no speakers contrast the two pronunciations. It is generally includes the other spellings of the sound, but the word счи́тывать sometimes has [ɕtɕ] because of the morpheme boundary between the ⟨с-⟩ and the ⟨ч⟩.
  9. ^ Intervocalic ⟨г⟩ represents /v/ in certain words and affixes.
  10. ^ The long counterpart of [ʐ], [ʐʐ] is pronounced as soft [ʑʑ] in a few lexical items (such as дрожжи or заезжать) by conservative Moscow speakers; such realization is now somewhat obsolete (Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224)).
  11. ^ a b c d e Vowels are fronted and/or raised in the context of palatalized consonants: /a/ and /u/ become [æ] and [ʉ], respectively between palatalized consonants, /e/ is realized as [e] before and between palatalized consonants and /o/ becomes [ɵ] after and between palatalized consonants.
  12. ^ [ɑ] appears between a hard consonant (or a pause) and /l/.

ReferencesEdit