Whitewashing in film
Whitewashing is a casting practice in the film industry in which white actors are cast in historically non-white character roles or in roles which are scripted for non-white characters. The film industry has a history of frequently casting white actors for roles about non-white characters. By downplaying the roles that such figures have had in cultural events, the practice is seen as a form of censorship analogous to the whitewashing of criticism.
In the early 20th century, white actors caricatured different races by wearing blackface or yellowface, commonly exaggerating the perceived stereotypes of other races. For example, Swedish born white actor Warner Oland played the Chinese detective Charlie Chan in Charlie Chan Carries On (1931) and subsequent films. Because of the lack of characters of color in the film industry, these roles were well received at the time by minorities. Other non-Asian actors to portray Chinese detective Charlie Chan include Manuel Arbó, Sidney Toler, Roland Winters, Ross Martin and Peter Ustinov.
Films became more racially integrated by the mid-20th-century, and blackface mostly disappeared from the film industry. The film Othello (1965) was an exception, as the white actor Laurence Olivier was cast as "the Moor." He wore blackface as the title character. In Soul Man and Tropic Thunder white actors portray white characters that use blackface.
The practice of "yellowface" extended into the 1960s. For instance, Mickey Rooney played a Japanese landlord in Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961). Professor David A. Schlossman said of Asian characters in particular, "Many of the Asian roles portrayed by White actors also contributed to the pantheon of racial stereotypes in US national discourse." At the start of the 21st century, minorities were still under-represented in the film industry at different stages. While historically black roles are now generally cast with black actors, the practice of whitewashing applied to other minorities.
Guy Aoki said African Americans "have long felt the full brunt of the 'whitewashing' of roles" and that Asians have experienced it as well. Native Americans have also had their historic leaders and warriors portrayed by whites.
Role of executivesEdit
The BBC said in 2015, "The practice of casting white actors in non-white roles is still prevalent in Hollywood – despite widespread condemnation and protest." A report in 2013 showed that 94% of film executives were white and that non-white people were under-represented as filmmakers and actors. The BBC explored two reasons for the casting practice: institutional racism and producers believing that well-known white actors attract more audiences and maximize profits. Thomas Rothman, the chairman of Sony Pictures said, "I guess there's a certain institutional force and memory that exists out there... I think the industry's improving but I certainly agree with those who say we haven't come far enough fast enough."
Jeffery Mio, author of Multicultural Psychology: Understanding Our Diverse Communities, hypothesizes that the film industry, mostly white, hires people of similar backgrounds. Mio said of the rationale that only the most qualified actors are cast, "That's the argument that directors and casting directors make, but a lot of times ethnic actors will tell us that when they say we're just choosing the best actor, they mean we're choosing our friends, or people we're used to." Craig Detweiler, professor of film history at Pepperdine University, said, "There are a shortage [sic] of African American, Asian and Latino stars. For all Hollywood's progressive politics, its casting decisions look remarkably retrograde." In 2010, TheWrap ascribed the lack of racial diversity to institutional racism and a lack of bankable actors of color and that whitewashing in films like Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time and The Last Airbender aggravated the issue.
On casting white actors to maximize profits, David White, National Executive Director of the actors' union SAG-AFTRA said popular black actors such as Will Smith, Denzel Washington, and David Oyelowo refuted the casting rationale. Assistant professor of telecommunications Andrew J. Weaver said, "There is an assumption in Hollywood that whites would avoid movies with majority black casts, or any race cast for that matter. You see this whitewashing of films – even films that have minority characters written into them are being cast with whites." Film professor Mitchell W. Block said studios adhered to casting norms as a matter of practicing business to appeal to investors and producers. Director Ridley Scott said without the casting of big-name actors, his 2014 biblical epic film Exodus: Gods and Kings would never have been made, saying, "I can't mount a film of this budget... and say that my lead actor is Mohammad so-and-so from such-and-such... I'm just not going to get financed." USA Today noted with films like Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), A Mighty Heart (2007), and Pan (2015), "White actors continue to be top of mind for plum roles, despite the under-representation of people of color at the acting, directing and producing levels."
Media watchdog groups have sought more authentic representations on screen, taking issue with casting decisions such as actor Johnny Depp as a Native American in The Lone Ranger (2013). With films from the United States receiving promotion in more global markets, the groups argue for roles that represent the diversity of audiences, who are seeking more authenticity. SAG-AFTRA's David White demurred on groups' opposition to casting white actors in non-white roles, "The laws insist that one's race not be part of the qualifications for a job," but he recognized that there was a lack of diversity in roles available. Law professor John Tehranian said, "Of course, there is nothing inherently wrong with race-blind casting, as long as it works both ways. But in reality, it never has; one rarely sees, for example, an African American, Latino, or Asian actor cast as a white character."
Examples of associated casesEdit
Below is a list of some of the films that have had their casting criticized as whitewashing:
|21||2008||The film about card counting features actors Jim Sturgess, Kate Bosworth, Jacob Pitts and Kevin Spacey in the lead roles. The film is based on the true story where a group of Asian American students and their teacher applied card counting to win significantly in gambling. Jeff Ma, who was among the students, said that the controversy was "overblown" and that the important aspect is that a talented actor would portray him. Ma, who is Chinese American, told USA Today, "I would have been a lot more insulted if they had chosen someone who was Japanese or Korean, just to have an Asian playing me."|
|30 Days of Night||2007||In the vampire horror film, actor Josh Hartnett plays Sheriff Eben Oleson in an Alaskan town. The originating comic book mini-series featured the character as Sheriff Eben Olemaun, who is of Inuit descent.|
|Aloha||2015||The romantic comedy features an all-white principal cast and is set in the state of Hawaii, which is over 70% nonwhite. One of the actors, Emma Stone, portrayed the character Allison Ng; the character is stated as having a mother of Swedish descent and a father of half Native Hawaiian and half Chinese descent.|
|Anna and the King of Siam||1946||In the historical drama film, actor Rex Harrison plays the Siamese king Mongkut.|
|Annihilation||2018||In the science fiction film, actresses Natalie Portman and Jennifer Jason Leigh, both of whom are Ashkenazi Jewish, play characters who in the novel are, respectively, of Asian and half Native American descent. The characters' physical descriptions were only mentioned in passing in the second novel, following Annihilation.|
|Apache||1954||In the Western film, actor Burt Lancaster plays an Apache warrior.|
|Argo||2012||In the political thriller film based on a true story, actor Ben Affleck plays Tony Mendez, a CIA technical operations officer who is of half Mexican descent. Tony Mendez himself said he did not think of himself as Hispanic.|
|Arrow||2012||In the superhero tv series, actor Matthew Nable plays Ra's al Ghul who in the Comic books was portrayed as of Middle Eastern or East Asian.|
|Batman Begins||2005||In the Batman film, actor Liam Neeson plays Ra's al Ghul who in the Comic books was portrayed as of Middle Eastern or East Asian.|
|A Beautiful Mind||2001||In the biographical film about John Nash, actor Jennifer Connelly plays Alicia Nash, who was born in El Salvador.|
|The Beguiled||2017||The drama film set in the Southern United States during the American Civil War was based on a 1966 novel that featured the mixed-race teenager Edwina and the black enslaved maid Mattie. Edwina was recast as a white teacher (played by Kirsten Dunst) and Mattie was cut out of the film. Director Sofia Coppola explained the removal, "I didn't want to brush over such an important topic in a light way. Young girls watch my films and this was not the depiction of an African-American character I would want to show them."|
|The Big Wedding||2013||In the comedy film, actor Ben Barnes plays a Colombian character and wears brownface makeup for the part.|
|The Birth of a Nation||1915||In the silent epic drama film, African-Americans were played by white actors in blackface. The film as a whole was highly controversial for its portrayal of African-Americans as unintelligent and sexually aggressive towards white women, and the portrayal of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) (whose original founding is dramatized) as a heroic force. There were widespread African-American protests against the film, while the NAACP spearheaded an unsuccessful campaign to ban the film.|
The film's release was credited as one of the events that inspired the "second era" Ku Klux Klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia, in the same year. The Birth of a Nation, along with the trial and lynching of Leo Frank for the 1913 murder of Mary Phagan in Atlanta, was used as a recruiting tool for the KKK. Under President Woodrow Wilson, it was the first American motion picture to be screened at the White House.
|Black Narcissus||1947||In the drama film based on a 1939 novel, actress Jean Simmons plays a Kanchi, Tibetan maiden.|
|Boys Don't Cry||1999||In the true story this film is based on, Phillip DeVine, a black man, was murdered as well. DeVine does not appear and is not mentioned in the film.|
|Breakfast at Tiffany's||1961||In the romantic comedy film, actor Mickey Rooney plays Holly Golightly's Asian neighbor.|
|Bully||2001||Murder victim Bobby Kent, who was of Iranian descent, is portrayed by Nick Stahl.|
|Charlie Chan Carries On||1931||Actor Warner Oland plays Chinese detective Charlie Chan in the film, as well as 15 other films featuring the character.|
|Cleopatra||1963||In the historical epic film, actor Elizabeth Taylor plays Cleopatra, an Egyptian queen of Macedonian Greek descent.|
|Cocaine Godmother||2018||In the biographical crime-drama television film, actress Catherine Zeta-Jones plays real-life Colombian drug lord Griselda Blanco.|
|The Conqueror||1956||In the epic film, actor John Wayne plays the title character Genghis Khan, a Mongol emperor.|
|The Curse of La Llorona||2019||In the supernatural horror film based on the Latin American folktale of La Llorona, actress Linda Cardellini plays a character named Anna Garcia.|
|Death Note||2017||The English-language adaptation of the Japanese manga relocates the story to Seattle and renamed the protagonist Light Turner. USA Today reported that the film received backlash for whitewashing in casting white actors when Asian American actors could have been cast.|
|Divergent||2014||In the science fiction film, actor Theo James plays Four, who the novel's author Veronica Roth had confirmed to be biracial.|
|Dr. No||1962||In the spy film, the first James Bond film, Jewish-Canadian actor Joseph Wiseman plays the titular Julius No, who is half-Chinese, while British actress Zena Marshall plays Miss Taro, another character of Asian descent.|
|Doctor Strange||2016||In the superhero film, actress Tilda Swinton plays the Ancient One, who in the comics is a man from Kamar-Taj, a fictional kingdom in the Himalayas.|
|Dragon Seed||1944||In the war drama film, actor Katharine Hepburn plays the Chinese protagonist Jade.|
|Dragonball Evolution||2009||In the film based on the Japanese manga Dragon Ball, actor Justin Chatwin plays the lead character Goku.|
|Drive||2011||In the crime film, actor Carey Mulligan plays Irene, who is depicted as Latin in the original novel.|
|Earthsea||2004||In the television miniseries adaptation of the "Earthsea" novels, most characters, including the main character Ged, are portrayed as white. In the original novels by Ursula K. Le Guin, Ged's skin is dark red-brown and the majority of people of the world are nonwhite; Le Guin has criticized this casting.|
|Edge of Tomorrow||2014||In the science fiction film, actor Tom Cruise plays William Cage, a version of the novel's Japanese protagonist Keiji Kiriya.|
|Exodus: Gods and Kings||2014||In the Biblical epic film, actors Christian Bale, Joel Edgerton, Sigourney Weaver and Aaron Paul play Biblical figures who are of non-European origin. Director Ridley Scott said about his casting, "I can't mount a film of this budget, where I have to rely on tax rebates in Spain, and say that my lead actor is Mohammad so-and-so from such-and-such. I'm just not going to get it financed. So the question doesn't even come up."|
|The Face of Fu Manchu||1965||In the thriller film, white actor Christopher Lee plays Asian Dr. Fu Manchu, as well as 4 other films featuring the character.|
|Fiesta||1947||In the musical drama film, actress Esther Williams plays the Mexican woman Maria Morales.|
|Ghost in the Shell||2017||The U.S. live action adaptation of the Japanese franchise featured several white actors, including Scarlett Johansson, Pilou Asbæk, and Michael Pitt, in the roles of Japanese animated characters. Pavan Shamdasani of Asia Times said, "The original is about as Asian as things get: Japanese cult manga, ground-breaking anime, Hong Kong-inspired locations, Eastern philosophy-based story. Most of that's been downright ignored with its big-screen adaptation, and Scarlett Johansson's casting as the dark-haired, obviously originally Asian lead sent netizens into a rage." Mamoru Oshii, director of the animated series, stated that the inspiration for the world of the film is not specifically Asian, nor is the ethnicity of the "shell" of the main character, specifically Japanese.|
|Gods and Monsters||1998||In the biographical drama about the last years of film director James Whale, white actress Lynn Redgrave plays Whale's housemaid Hanna. In the original book Father of Frankenstein by Christopher Bram, the character of Hanna is Maria, a maid of Mexican descent. Bill Condon, scriptwriter of the film, justified it saying that the European servants of that time were considered of "more value" and thus accentuated the economic power of Whale's character.|
|Gods of Egypt||2016||In the fantasy film, the principal cast of the Egyptian deities is portrayed by black and white non-Egyptian actors.|
|The Good Earth||1937||In the drama film about Chinese farmers, actors Paul Muni and Luise Rainer play Chinese characters.|
|The Great Wall||2016||In the film set in the Northern Song Dynasty of ancient China, Matt Damon stars in the lead role of William Garin. Director Zhang Yimou defended the casting choice, stating that Damon is not playing a role that was originally conceived for a Chinese actor. Two examples of critics providing differing opinions on the film: Pavan Shamdasani of Asia Times said, "His 'white man saves China' shtick brought together the wide spectrum of film critics, respected historians and the internet's most thin-skinned trolls, in an outpouring of sheer outrage against blatant Hollywood whitewashing." Ann Hornaday, chief film critic for the Washington Post, writes that "early concerns about Damon playing a 'white savior' in the film turn out to be unfounded: his character, a mercenary soldier, is heroic, but also clearly a foil for the superior principles and courage of his Chinese allies."|
|The Greatest Story Ever Told||1965||In the Biblical epic film, non-Middle Eastern actors play Biblical figures who are of Middle Eastern origin. Actor Max von Sydow plays Jesus Christ.|
|Hell to Eternity||1960||In the war drama film based on a true story, actor Jeffrey Hunter plays Guy Gabaldon, who in real life was of Mexican descent |
|The House of the Spirits||1993||In the period drama set in Chile, actors Meryl Streep, Glenn Close, Jeremy Irons and Winona Ryder play Latin characters.|
|Hud||1963||In the drama film, actor Patricia Neal plays Alma, a housekeeper at a ranch, where in the original novel, Horseman, Pass By, the character was a black housekeeper named Halmea. The director said of casting a white actor for the character, "We would have loved to keep her black for the movie. She has moral strength, she's benevolent, she's tough-minded, and she's secure in herself. So we would have loved to say to the world, 'Look, here's a hell of a woman, and she's black,' but in those days you simply couldn't do it, and not because the talent wasn't there—there were at least a half-dozen powerhouse black actresses who could have played that role. But the times weren't ready for it yet, and it was, of course, further complicated by the attempted rape."|
|The Human Stain||2003||In the drama film, actor Anthony Hopkins plays Coleman Silk, a former professor who is African-American and has been passing as a white Jew.|
|The Hunger Games||2012||In the science fiction adventure film, actor Jennifer Lawrence stars as Katniss Everdeen, who author Suzanne Collins described to have the typical look of her district: olive skin, straight black hair, and grey eyes. Nicola Balkind in Fan Phenomena: The Hunger Games said that readers perceived Katniss and her people to be nonwhite; the film's casting call for Katniss specified a Caucasian appearance. Collins said Katniss as well as Gale "were not particularly intended to be biracial" as readers thought, "It is a time period where hundreds of years have passed from now. There's been a lot of ethnic mixing."|
Deidre Anne Evans Garriott, Whitney Elaine Jones and Julie Elizabeth Tyler said about the casting call, "Calling for a Caucasian actress clearly excludes other capable actresses and privileges whiteness in Hollywood... This casting choice over an actress who may look more like the Katniss Collins describes—and who may or may not self-identify as Caucasian—may challenge traditional ideas of beauty, and how Western society associates beauty with heroism."
|I Don't Know How She Does It||2011||In the book, Momo Gumeratne is a Sri Lankan woman. In the 2011 film adaptation, Momo Gumeratne is renamed Momo Hahn and is played by Olivia Munn, an actress of mixed Chinese, English, Irish and German descent.|
|Imitation of Life||1959||In the romantic drama film, actor Susan Kohner plays Sarah Jane, a mixed ethnicity woman who can pass as white.|
|The King and I||1956||In the musical film, Yul Brynner plays the Thai king Mongkut. Despite Brynner claiming to have distant Mongolian ancestry, Brynner is widely considered a white actor.|
|King David||1985||In the Biblical epic film, non-Middle Eastern actors play Biblical figures who are of Middle Eastern origin. Richard Gere plays the Biblical figure David.|
|The King of Fighters||2010||In the martial arts action film based on the video game series, actor Sean Faris stars as the Japanese Kyo Kusanagi.|
|King of Kings||1961||In the Biblical epic film, non-Middle Eastern actors play biblical figures who are of Middle Eastern origin. Jeffrey Hunter plays Jesus Christ.|
|Kubo and the Two Strings||2016||In the stop motion animated fantasy film, several white actors voice Japanese characters. The titular character Kubo is voiced by Irish actor Art Parkinson.|
|The Last Airbender||2010||In the fantasy adventure film based on the TV series Avatar: The Last Airbender, white actors play characters that are depicted as East Asian and Inuit in the TV series. On the other hand, the actors portraying the antagonist Fire Nation characters are mainly Middle Eastern and Indian.|
|The Last Temptation of Christ||1988||In the Biblical epic film, non-Middle Eastern actors play Biblical figures who are of Middle Eastern origin, including Willem Dafoe as Jesus Christ.|
|Lawrence of Arabia||1962||In the historical epic film, actor Alec Guinness plays the Arab Prince Faisal.|
|The Lone Ranger||2013||In the Western film, actor Johnny Depp plays the Comanche sidekick Tonto. Depp has claimed on several occasions that he has some Cherokee or Comanche ancestry.|
|Lost Boundaries||1949||In the drama film based on a true story, white actors play members of a family that is partly African-American but passes as white.|
|Mackenna's Gold||1969||In the western film, white actress Julie Newmar plays Hesh-Ke, a Native American woman.|
|A Majority of One||1961||In the comedy film, actor Alec Guinness plays a Japanese businessman.|
|The Martian||2015||In the science fiction film based on the 2011 novel, actress Mackenzie Davis plays Mission Control satellite planner Mindy Park. Author Andy Weir said he "perceived" Mindy Park as Korean but said he did not explicitly write her as Korean. Another character from the book, Venkat Kapoor, who is of Hindu descent, also became Vincent Kapoor in the film, and is played by Chiwetel Ejiofor, a British actor of Nigerian descent.|
|The Mask of Fu Manchu||1932||In the adverture film, white actor Boris Karloff and actress Myrna Loy play Asians Dr. Fu Manchu and Fah Lo See. The Chinese embassy in Washington, D.C. issued a formal complaint against the film.|
|The Mysterious Dr. Fu Manchu||1929||In the drama film, white actor Warner Oland plays Asian Dr. Fu Manchu, as well as 3 other films featuring the character.|
|A Mighty Heart||2007||In the drama film based on the memoir of the same name, actress Angelina Jolie plays Mariane Pearl, a French-born woman born to a Cuban mother of Afro-Chinese descent and Dutch Jewish father.|
|My Dinner with Hervé||2018||In the drama film based on a true story, actor Peter Dinklage plays Hervé Villechaize, who was reported to be of Filipino descent. HBO programming president Casey Bloys said in July 2017 that Villechaize's family was not sure if they were Filipino. Dinklage said in August 2018 that Villechaize was not Filipino, saying, "I've met his brother and other members of his family. He was French, and of German and English descent. So it’s strange these people are saying he’s Filipino." He blamed Wikipedia for characterizing Villechaize as such.|
|Nightflyers||1987||In the science fiction film, actor Catherine Mary Stewart plays Miranda Dorlac, who in the originating 1980 novella by George R. R. Martin was the black character Melantha Jhirl.|
|Noah||2014||The Biblical epic film features an all-white cast. White actor Russell Crowe plays the Biblical figure Noah. However, "fittingly for a Biblical story", two of the characters are played by Jewish actors (Jennifer Connelly and Logan Lerman). Screenwriter Ari Handel said, "From the beginning, we were concerned about casting, the issue of race. What we realized is that this story is functioning at the level of myth, and as a mythical story, the race of the individuals doesn't matter. They're supposed to be stand-ins for all people... You either try to put everything in there, which just calls attention to it, or you just say, 'Let's make that not a factor, because we're trying to deal with everyman.'" Handel said the race of Noah's family was cast based on the foremost casting of Russell Crowe and that he avoided casting other races for people outside the family as not to show "racial differences between who lived and who died" and as a result make "a terrible, terrible statement".|
|Not Without My Daughter||1991||In the drama film, actor Alfred Molina, who is of Italian and Spanish descent, plays Sayyed Bozorg "Moody" Mahmoody, an Iranian physician.|
|Othello||1965||In the film based on William Shakespeare's tragedy play Othello (c. 1603), actor Laurence Olivier plays in blackface the character Othello, who is of Moorish descent.|
|The Ottoman Lieutenant||2017||Dutch actor Michiel Huisman plays a Turkish lieutenant.|
|The Outsider||1961||In the biographical film, Jewish actor Tony Curtis plays Ira Hayes, a U.S. Marine of Native American descent.|
|Pan||2015||In the fantasy film, actor Rooney Mara plays Tiger Lily, an American Indian character.|
|The Party||1968||In the comedy film, actor Peter Sellers plays an Indian actor.|
|A Passage to India||1984||In the historical drama film, actor Alec Guinness plays the Indian character Professor Godbole.|
|The Passion of the Christ||2004||In the Biblical epic film, non-Middle Eastern actors play Biblical figures of Middle Eastern origin, including Jim Caviezel playing Jesus Christ.|
|Pay It Forward||2000||In the drama film based on a novel, actor Kevin Spacey plays teacher Eugene Simonet. In the original book, the teacher is Reuben St. Clair, who is of African American descent.|
|Pinky||1949||In the race drama film, actor Jeanne Crain plays a partly African American character who can pass as white.|
|Power Rangers||2017||In the superhero film based on the television series, actress Elizabeth Banks plays Rita Repulsa, a role previously played physically by Japanese actress Machiko Soga in its source series Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger. In the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers series, the character is played (visually) in its first season by Machiko Soga again. In the following seasons and the by movie respectively, the character is played by non-white actresses Carla Perez (series; visually) and Julia Cortez (film; acting and voice) . In all seasons of the series, the character is voiced by white (North American) voice actress Barbara Goodson.|
|Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time||2010||In the fantasy adventure film, actor Jake Gyllenhaal plays the title character, a Persian.|
|The Promise||2016||French-Canadian actress Charlotte Le Bon plays the Armenian love interest.|
|Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins||1985||In the action-adventure film, actor Joel Grey plays a Korean martial arts master who trains Remo Williams.|
|Scarface||1983||In the crime film, actor Al Pacino plays Tony Montana, who is of Cuban descent. In fact most of the Cuban-American characters in the film were portrayed by non-Cuban actors.|
|The Sheik||1921||In the romantic drama film, Italian actor Rudolph Valentino plays the Sheik, an Arab character from what is now Algeria.|
|Short Circuit||1986||In the science fiction film, Jewish actor Fisher Stevens plays an Indian character.|
|Short Circuit 2||1988||In the science fiction film, actor Fisher Stevens plays an Indian character.|
|Show Boat||1951||In the romantic drama film, actor Ava Gardner plays Julie, a character of mixed ethnicity. An actor of mixed ethnicity, Lena Horne, was originally cast to play Julie before the studio required a casting change.|
|The Social Network||2010||In the drama film, biracial actor Max Minghella plays the ConnectU co-founder Divya Narendra, who is of Indian descent. Director David Fincher said, "we had read an enormous, probably a hundred, Indian actors who came in to read for Divya and I saw footage of the actual Divya Narendra who I've met now and he's kind of like Warren Beatty. There's nothing, aside from being incredibly tan, there's almost nothing that seems particularly ethnic about him.... and we couldn't find somebody with that sort of smoothness. I looked and I looked and I looked. We went to London, Paris, Montreal, we cast from everywhere and finally in the end I just felt that Max had the most, kind of, I just wanted to make sure that Divya was an equal. He was the most important third wheel in this triumvirate." Actor Aziz Ansari commented, "These days, Indian people, real Indian people, pop up way more in film and television, but fake Indians are still around more than you think. I loved 'The Social Network,' but I have a hard time understanding why the Indian-American Harvard student Divya Narendra was played by Max Minghella, a half-Chinese, half-Italian British actor."|
|The Son of the Sheik||1926||In the adventure drama film, actor Rudolph Valentino plays the lead Arab character.|
|Speed Racer||2008||In the film, Caucasian actors play the characters that are originally Asian in the Japanese manga and anime adaptation. Similarly, the names of the characters, all originally Japanese, are changed in favor of its Western regionalization. However, the character of Taejo Togokahn, played by Korean performer Rain, was created for the film as a homage.|
|Star Trek Into Darkness||2013||In the science fiction film, actor Benedict Cumberbatch plays the villain Khan Noonien Singh, who is of Indian descent. In his previous cinematic and television appearances (Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and "Space Seed"), the character is portrayed by Mexican actor of European descent Ricardo Montalbán.|
|Starship Troopers||1997||In the science fiction film, actor Casper Van Dien plays John Rico. In the original book, the character was Juan Rico of Filipino descent.|
|Stonewall||2015||The film about the Stonewall riots depicts a white male fictional protagonist, which members of the LGBT community contested as whitewashing that excluded the key involvement of transgender and lesbian women of color. Director Roland Emmerich, himself gay, said, "I didn't make this movie only for gay people, I made it also for straight people. I kind of found out, in the testing process, that actually, for straight people, [Danny] is a very easy in. Danny's very straight-acting. He gets mistreated because of that. [Straight audiences] can feel for him." He said he and screenwriter Jon Robin Baitz consulted historians and veterans and said, "There were only a couple of transgender women in the Stonewall ever. They were like a minority."|
|Stuck||2007||In the thriller film based on a true story, actor Mena Suvari plays Brandi Boski, who is based on Chante Jawan Mallardin who is African American.|
|The Teahouse of the August Moon||1956||In the comedy film, actor Marlon Brando plays the Japanese character Sakini.|
|The Ten Commandments||1956||In the Biblical epic film, non-Middle Eastern actors play Biblical figures of Middle Eastern origin. Moses is played by Charlton Heston and Ramesses II is played by Yul Brynner (see above).|
|The Thief of Bagdad||1924||In the swashbuckler film, actor Douglas Fairbanks plays the lead Arab character.|
|Touch of Evil||1958||In the crime noir, actor Charlton Heston plays Miguel Vargas, a Mexican drug enforcement official.|
|Wanted||2008||In the action film, actress Angelina Jolie plays Fox, who is African-American in the comics and modeled on actress Halle Berry.|
|Warm Bodies||2013||In the zombie comedy film, actress Analeigh Tipton plays Nora, who is depicted in the book as half-Ethiopian.|
|West Side Story||1961||In the romantic musical film, actress Natalie Wood plays Maria, who is of Puerto Rican descent.|
|Whiskey Tango Foxtrot||2016||In the comedy-drama film based on a memoir and set in Afghanistan, actors Christopher Abbott and Alfred Molina portray Afghan characters. Tina Fey, who produced and starred in the film, said, "I had a lot of say. If your next question is, why is Chris Abbott not Afghan? — I did beg [the casting directors], 'Guys, my preference would be a native speaker.' They pleaded their case that Chris [was] their choice." Fey added, "Tricky thing is, Afghans [can be] Caucasians."|
|The Wild North||1952||In this adventure film about Canada, Cyd Charisse plays a Native American.|
|The Wind and the Lion||1975||In the historical film, actor Sean Connery plays Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni, a leader of Berber insurrectionists.|
|World Trade Center||2006||In the disaster drama film based on the September 11 attacks, actor William Mapother plays Marine Sergeant Jason Thomas, who in real life is black.|
|The Year of Living Dangerously||1982||In the drama film, actress Linda Hunt plays a male Chinese Australian dwarf.|
- Film adaptations of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, in which Captain Nemo has often been cast as European rather than as an Indian prince
- Victoria, Frankie (February 24, 2016). "Last Week Tonight asks how is Hollywood whitewashing still a thing". Kollaboration. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Luis Roberto Alcazar (May 12, 2015). "Biased Media — General Analysis". Diversity in Cinema. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Scherker, Amanda (July 10, 2014). "Whitewashing Was One Of Hollywood's Worst Habits. So Why Is It Still Happening?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Weiler, A.H. (October 6, 1961). "The Screen: Breakfast at Tiffany's: Audrey Hepburn Stars in Music Hall Comedy". New York Times. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- Schlossman, David A. (2002). Actors and Activists: Performance, Politics, and Exchange Among Social Worlds. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-8153-3268-8.
- Brook, Tom (October 6, 2015). "When white actors play other races". BBC. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
- Julia, Boyd, (January 1, 2015). "An Examination of Native Americans in Film and Rise of Native Filmmakers". 6 (1). Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Lang, Brent (May 26, 2010). "Hollywood's White Summer: Where's the Diversity?". TheWrap. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
- Staff (May 21, 2011). "IU study looks at why Hollywood blockbusters often lack minority characters". IU News Room. Indiana University. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Thompson, Arienne (January 9, 2015). "When it comes to diversity, Hollywood's lost in the 'Woods'". USA Today. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
- Foundas, Scott (November 25, 2014). "'Exodus: Gods and Kings' Director Ridley Scott on Creating His Vision of Moses". Variety. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
- "BBC One – Film 2014, Episode 13". BBC.
- Tehranian, John (2010). "The Last Minstrel Show?". Whitewashed: America's Invisible Middle Eastern Minority. NYU Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-8147-8273-6.
- "Where Are the Asian-American Movie Stars?". Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Ghahremani, Tanya (April 1, 2013). "25 Minority Characters That Hollywood Whitewashed". Complex. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Luttrell, Gina (February 25, 2014). "What if People Reacted to These 10 Roles Like They Have to Michael B. Jordan?". Arts.Mic. Mic. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Mandvi, Aasif (May 13, 2012). "Whitewashing, a history". Salon. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Fisher, Luchina (June 4, 2008). "Is Hollywood Whitewashing Ethnic Roles?". ABC News. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- Berry, Jillian A. (March 14, 2008). "INTERVIEW MIT, Vegas, Hollywood". The Tech. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Bowles, Scott (March 26, 2008). "New film '21' counts on the real deal for inspiration". USA Today. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
- "Hollywood's blatant obsession with 'whitewashing' movies". aol.com. AOL. June 4, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Nguyen, Michael (June 2, 2015). "'Aloha' film attacked for 'white-washing' of Hawaii". msnbc.com. MSNBC. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Schwab, Nikki (June 12, 2015). "Passing for Black? It Happens in Hollywood All the Time". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Bergan, Ronald (March 4, 2009). "We can't whitewash Hollywood's racist past". The Guardian. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- Pulliam-Moore, Charles (December 14, 2017). "Annihilation's Director Says He Didn't Know About His Film's Whitewashing Problems". Gizmodo. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Rico, Jack (January 10, 2013). "Argo's real Tony Mendez: "I'm not Hispanic"". NBC Latino. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Wilson, Matt D. "Matthew Nable Is The Latest White Man To Play Ra's Al Ghul". ComicsAlliance. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
- Alcoff, Linda Martín (2012). "Alien and Alienated". In Yancy, George (ed.). Reframing the Practice of Philosophy: Bodies of Color, Bodies of Knowledge. SUNY Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4384-4003-3.
- Atad, Corey (June 20, 2017). "Lost in Adaptation". Slate. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Syed, Hera (April 29, 2013). "Film Review: Brownface and Racism in 'The Big Wedding'". Pop Insomniacs. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- DeVore, Dan. "Birth of a Nation, The (1915)". MovieJustice. Archived from the original on July 7, 2009.
- Armstrong, Eric M. (February 26, 2010). "Revered and Reviled: D.W. Griffith's 'The Birth of a Nation'". The Moving Arts Film Journal. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "Top 10 Banned Films of the 20th Century". Alternative Reel. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- Stokes, Melvyn (2008). D.W. Griffith's the Birth of a Nation: A History of the Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time. Oxford University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-19-804436-9.. Although in 1914, the Italian film Cabiria had been shown on the White House lawn. Kennedy, Ross A. (2013). A Companion to Woodrow Wilson. John Wiley & Sons. p. 29.
- Blunt, Tom (September 12, 2011). "Cloud Atlas casting coup: 'Whitewashing' crisis averted". Signature. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Whitney, Oliver (December 13, 2018). "Boys Don't Cry and Hollywood's Ongoing Obsession With Trans Suffering". them. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- Boffetta, Elena (June 7, 2015). "Crowe's 'whitewashing' sparks criticism from advocates". bbc.com. BBC. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Lee, Chris (May 22, 2010). "Hollywood whitewash? 'Airbender' and 'Prince of Persia' anger fans with ethnic casting". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Schutze, Jim (1998). Bully: Does Anyone Deserve to Die?. HarperCollins. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-380-72333-1.
- Anthony, Iva (December 18, 2014). "Films That Cast Non-Blacks In Black Roles". MadameNoire. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Moreno, Carolina (January 18, 2018). "Catherine Zeta-Jones Is Whitewashing A Role That Could Be Played By An Actual Latina". HuffPost. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Fernandez, Alexia (October 19, 2018). "The Curse of La Llorona Faces Controversy for Casting White Actress Linda Cardellini in the Lead". People. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Lawler, Kelly (March 23, 2017). "Netflix's 'Death Note' adaptation draws backlash for whitewashing". USA Today. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Romano, Aja (September 30, 2013). "Why did this author do a 180 in her stance against whitewashing?". The Daily Dot. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
- Kiang, Jessica (February 23, 2016). "The 20 Worst Examples Of Hollywood Whitewashing". IndieWire. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Bricken, Rob (April 26, 2016). "Marvel's Attempts to Justify Dr. Strange's Whitewashing Are Getting Insulting". Gizmodo. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Sage, Alyssa (April 27, 2016). "Marvel Responds to 'Doctor Strange' 'Whitewashing' Criticisms Over Tilda Swinton Casting". Variety. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Opam, Kwame (April 13, 2016). "A quick and dirty guide for understanding Doctor Strange". The Verge. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Yee, Lawrence (November 4, 2016). "Asian Actors in Comic Book Films Respond to 'Doctor Strange' Whitewashing Controversy". Variety. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Siek, Stephanie (January 13, 2012). "Is Hollywood 'whitewashing' Asian roles?". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Le Guin, Ursula K. (December 16, 2004). "A Whitewashed Earthsea". Slate.com. Retrieved August 29, 2016.
- Le Guin, Ursula K. (January 2005). "Frankenstein's Earthsea". Locus Magazine. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Lee, Marissa (December 1, 2011). "WB taps Tom Cruise to play Billy Cage–née Keiji Kiriya". Racebending.com. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- Merritt, Jonathan (December 2, 2014). "Why does Hollywood keep barring minorities from Biblical blockbusters?". The Week. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
Whitewashing Bible films is something of a Hollywood tradition spanning decades, and it won't change until audiences demand better.
- "The racist curse of Fu Manchu back in spotlight after Chevrolet ad". South China Morning Post. May 3, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
- Shamdasani, Pavan (January 28, 2017). "Whitewashing the Great Wall: A short history of cinematic whitewashing". Asia Times. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Gilchrist, Todd (September 16, 2014). "Interview: Mamoru Oshii". IGN.
- Harris, Hunter (March 24, 2017). "Ghost in the Shell's Original Director Mamoru Oshii Doesn't See Scarlett Johansson's Casting As Whitewashing". Vulture.
- Tsika, Noah (2009). Gods and Monsters: A Queer Film Classic. Arsenal Pulp Press. p. 41. ISBN 1551523493. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- Hamad, Ruby (April 1, 2014). "All lead actors in The Gods of Egypt will be white". Daily Life. Fairfax Media. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Wong, Julie Carrie (July 29, 2016). "Asian Americans decry 'whitewashed' Great Wall film starring Matt Damon". The Guardian. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- "The Great Wall: Is Matt Damon 'whitewashing' or good business?". BBC. July 29, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- "Matt Damon Says The Whole 'White Savior' Thing Is A 'F***in' Bummer'". Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Calvario, Liz. "The Great Wall Director Addresses Matt Damon Whitewashing Controversy - IndieWire". Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Hornaday, Ann. (February 16, 2017). "‘The Great Wall,’ Matt Damon and Hollywood’s delicate dance with China." The Washington Post. Accessed February 17, 2017.
- Esparza, Moctesuma (February 8, 2013). "Argo plays to Hollywood's worst traditions by erasing a Latino hero". The Guardian. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Baer, William (Spring 2003). "Hud: A Conversation with Irving Ravetch and Harriet Frank, Jr". Michigan Quarterly Review. XLII (2).
- Moore, A. (May 31, 2014). "6 Real Life Black Characters That Hollywood Cast As White People Instead". Atlanta Black Star. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Balkind, Nicola (2014). Fan Phenomena: The Hunger Games. Intellect Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-78320-204-1.
- Valby, Karen (April 7, 2011). "Team 'Hunger Games' talks: Author Suzanne Collins and director Gary Ross on their allegiance to each other, and their actors". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
- Garriott, Deidre Anne Evans; Jones, Whitney Elaine; Tyler, June Elizabeth, eds. (2014). "Part IV: Popular Responses in Actual Spaces". Space and Place in The Hunger Games: New Readings of the Novels. McFarland. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7864-7633-6.
- Pearson, Allison (2002). I Don't Know How She Does It. Random House. pp. 27, 34, 123, 337. ISBN 1856867269.
- Scheib, Ronnie (September 11, 2011). "I Don't Know How She Does It". Variety. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- Brynner, Rock (2006). Empire & Odyssey. Steerforth Press. p. 158.
- Culwell-Block, Logan (April 26, 2015). "A history of casting King and I". Playbill.
- Headlee, Celeste (July 2, 2010). "The Whitewashing of Hollywood". WNYC. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Pedersen, Erik (August 23, 2016). "Watchdog Group Chides Laika for "White-Washing" Kubo And The Two Strings". Deadline Hollywood News. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
- "Disney Exploiting Confusion About Whether Depp Has Indian Blood". June 17, 2013. Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Lillard, Margaret (July 25, 1989). "Landmark '49 Film About Family Passing for White Recalled". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Saumya, Kota (May 26, 2018). "'Mackenna's Gold' is all about the gold". Telangana Today. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Bui, Hoai-Tran (October 3, 2015). "The 5 biggest differences between 'The Martian' book and movie". USA Today.
- Wickman, Kase (October 9, 2015). "One Person Who Doesn't Think 'The Martian' Was Whitewashed? The Author". MTV News. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
- McNary, Dave (October 8, 2015). "'The Martian' Slammed Over 'White-Washing' Asian-American Roles". Variety. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Christopher Frayling, quoted in "Fu Manchu", in Newman, Kim (ed.),The BFI Companion to Horror. London, Cassell,1996, (pp.131-2) . ISBN 0-304-33216-X
- Wiltz, Teresa (June 23, 2007). "A Part Colored By History". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Miller, Victoria (June 25, 2017). "Peter Dinklage First Photo As Herve Villechaize Sparks Accusations of Whitewashing". Inquisitr. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Fienberg, Daniel (July 27, 2017). "'Deuce' Debate, Hervé Villechaize Casting Among Press Tour Highlights (and Lowlights) From Day 2". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- Hibberd, James (August 29, 2018). "Peter Dinklage talks Hervé Villechaize movie, addresses casting controversy". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- Liptak, Andrew (December 6, 2017). "George R.R. Martin says Syfy's Nightflyers casting fixes the previous version's whitewashing". The Verge. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Baden, Joel; Moss, Candide (December 11, 2014). "Does the new 'Exodus' movie whitewash the Bible?". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Miller, Gerri (March 21, 2014). "Hollywood Now: Divergent, Noah and It Felt Like Love". InterfaithFamily. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Scheller, Christina (April 11, 2014). "Stewardship of Creation: An Interview with 'Noah' Screenwriter, Ari Handel". The High Calling. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
- Redden, Molly (April 23, 2014). "Darren Aronofsky: We Nearly Abandoned 'Noah' Because of Racial Issues". Mother Jones. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Cornet, Ruth (February 2, 2016). "Power Rangers: Should Elizabeth Banks play Rita Repulsa?". Uproxx. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
- Harp, Justin (February 2, 2016). "#RitaRepulsaSoWhite: Power Rangers fans aren't happy with 'white-washed' casting of Elizabeth Banks as Rita". Digital Spy. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
- "Mighty Morphin Power Rangers full cast and crew". IMDb. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- Harris, Scott (July 1, 2013). "Hollywood's 12 Worst Cases of Ethnic Miscasting". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Susman, Gary (December 9, 2013). "'Scarface': 25 Things You Didn't Know About Al Pacino's Classic Crime Drama". Moviefone. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Ansari, Aziz (November 10, 2015). "Aziz Ansari on Acting, Race and Hollywood". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Agrawal, Prashani (October 8, 2010). "Who's the Indian in The Social Network?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- Fincher, David (2010). "The Social Network: Audio commentary [DVD]. (Los Angeles: Columbia Pictures)".
- Leon, Melissa (September 30, 2016). "Hollywood's Anime Whitewashing Epidemic: How Is This Still a Thing?". The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Lee, Paula Young (June 1, 2015). "The whitewashing of Allison Ng: 'Aloha' isn't alone in casting white actors in Asian roles". Salon.com. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Dowd, Kathy Ehrich (September 24, 2015). "Stonewall Director and Star Defend Film Against Critics Who Claim It 'Whitewashed' LGBT History". People. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- Oswald, Janelle (December 13, 2014). "Hollywood's Ancient Egypt Whitewash". The Voice. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Theodore-Vachon, ReBecca (December 23, 2014). "Dear Angelina: Thoughts on "Cleopatra"". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Hornaday, Ann (March 4, 2016). "'Whiskey Tango Foxtrot' and Hollywood's enduring problem with whitewashing". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
- Rosen, Christopher (March 4, 2016). "Tina Fey: Whiskey Tango Foxtrot casting controversy addressed". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
- "Caucasian Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary". dictionary.cambridge.org.
- "Notes: 'The Wild North'." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 31, 2016.