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White Serbia (Serbian: Бела Србија / Bela Srbija), called also Boiki (Serbian: Бојка / Bojka), is the name applied to the assumed homeland of the White Serbs, a tribal subgroup of Wends, who were the westernmost group of Early Slavs. They are the ancestors of the modern Serbs and Sorbs. While White Serbia is not explicitly mentioned, Boiki is mentioned in De Administrando Imperio, a 10th-century work by Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII (r. 913–959). According to it the "White Serbs" lived on the "other side of Turkey" (i.e. Hungary), in the area that they called "Boiki" (Bohemia). The area adjacent to it was known as White Croatia, where the White Croats trace their origin.

LocationEdit

SourcesEdit

Constantine VII in De Administrando Imperio recounts in 32nd chapter "It should be known that the Serbs are descended from the unbaptized Serbs, also called ‘white’, who live beyond Turkey, in a region called by them Boïki, where their neighbor is Francia, as is also Megali Croatia, the unbaptized, also called ‘white’. In this place, then, these Serbs also dwelt from the beginning... Now, after the two brothers succeeded their father in the rule of Serbia, one of them, taking one half of the folk, came as the refugee to Heraclius, the emperor of the Romaioi... Then, after some time these same Serbs decided to depart to their own homes, and the emperor sent them off. And so, when they had crossed the Danube River, they changed their minds and sent a request to the Emperor Heraclius... the emperor settled these same Serbs in these countries", while in 33rd chapter a subchapter recounts "(It should be known) that the clan of the anthypatos and patrikios Michael, son of Visevitz, archon of the Zachlumians, came from the unbaptized inhabitants on the Visla River, called Litziki, and they settled on the river called Zachluma".[1][2] A Latin document from the early 10th century recorded that the "Hungarians moved to Pannonia from Serbia (Ungarorum gens a Servia egressa in Pannoniam)", which is referring most probably to same White Serbia.[3]

DisputeEdit

Theories on the location of so-called "Boiki" and "White" Serbs have been disputed, but it is generally established to have been around the region of Bohemia and Saxony.[4][5][6][7][8] Since the 19th century, two most prominent theories were of Bohemia, and the land of the Boykos in Eastern Galicia in the Carpathians. The latter was mostly argued by 19th-century scholars, like Pavel Jozef Šafárik (1795–1865) and Henry Hoyle Howorth (1842–1923),[9] who also included the White Serbs among the Polabian Slavs.[10] Rather than relating Boiki and Bohemia, which in turn derived from ethnonym of the Celtic tribe Boii, they related the toponym to the much younger ethnonym of the Rusyns sub-ethnic group Boykos. Béni Kállay (1839–1903) noted that many historians assumed that Serbian territory was identical to the Czech lands (Bohemia) based on DAI's account and the name Bojka, but he also supported Šafárik's thesis.[11] Other scholars who had a similar opinion were Vladimir Ćorović (1885–1941),[12] and Ljubivoje Cerović (b. 1936).[13] However, most scholars like Borivoje Drobnjaković (1890–1961),[14] Andreas Stratos (1905–1981),[6] Sima Ćirković (1929–2009),[15] and Relja Novaković (1911–2003) located them to the West in the area between the Elbe and Saale rivers, roughly between Bohemia and East Germany (Polabia).[16] According to Mykhailo Hrushevsky (1898), Gyula Moravcsik (1949) and Jaroslav Rudnyckyj (1962–1972) unlike Croats, there is no proof that Serbs ever lived within Bohemia or in Eastern Galicia, only that they lived near Bohemia, and the connection between Boiki and Boykos is considered to be scholarly outdated and rejected.[4][5][17]

According to archaeologist V. V. Sedov (1995), the 32nd chapter of De Administrando Imperio indicates it was located in the Lower Lusatia territory where were located the Sorbs,[18] but the 33rd chapter about Zachlumia caused confusion which resulted with several hypotheses.[19] The first group of scholars argued the homeland existed between rivers Elbe and Saale, the second in the upper course of rivers Vistula and Oder, and the third from Elbe and Saale to the upper course of Vistula.[19] However, Sedov concluded that the archaeological data does not confirm any of these hypotheses, and most plausible is the consideration by Lubor Niederle that there's no evidence that White Serbia ever existed and Constantine VII most probably made up Northern Great Serbia only according to the analogy with Great Croatia.[19] According to Tibor Živković, the structure and content of the subchapter about the family of Michael of Zahumlje indicate they were most probably told by the Michael himself, and notably is not mentioned Serbian origin. Živković considered that it was possible his ruling family preserved the memory of their tribal origin, which is further evidence about the Northern origin of both the Serbs and Croats, to be roughly genuine stories, and not part of a political context.[20]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Živković 2012, p. 152–185.
  2. ^ Sedov 2013, p. 458–459.
  3. ^ Živković 2012, p. 153.
  4. ^ a b Mykhailo Hrushevsky (1997) [1898]. Andrzej Poppe; Frank E. Sysyn; Uliana M. Pasiczny (eds.). History of Ukraine-Rus'. Volume 1: From Prehistory to the Eleventh Century. Translated by Marta Skorupsky. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-1-895571-19-6. The second detail in Constantine's account, which supposedly points to the eastern Carpathians, is his reference to a 'place called Boiki (Boiki)' on the border with the White Serbs; for a long time this was considered — and some consider it still – to be a reference to the Ukrainian Boikos. That is very unlikely, however, because the location is too far east for the Serbs, nor is there any indication that the name of the Boikos was ever in such wide usage. So all we are left with to suggest the existence of a Rus' Croatia in the Carpathians is the Primary Chronicle ... Published by H. Jireiek, the Karten zur Geschichte (1897) also show the 'Boiki' on the Dnister (map 4). It is more likely that Boiki is a distorted variant of the name Boiohem, or Bohemia, as most scholars now believe...
  5. ^ a b Gyula Moravcsik, ed. (1949). De administrando imperio. Pázmány Péter Tudományegyetemi Görög Filoĺ́ogiai Intézet. pp. 130–131. ...should be modern Saxony, where remnants of Serbs (Sorbs) are still living. The name 'Boiki' has been much disputed over by specialists ... has proved that the 'place called Boiki' can only be Bohemia. Grégoire (L'Origine, 98) rejects Skok's proposal to read 'Boioi', and suggests 'Boimi'. C.'s account contains one serious inexactitude: namely, the statement that the Serbs lived 'in a place called by them Boiki'. Although we have documentary proof of the existence of Croats in Bohemia, we have none to suggest that Serbs lived there. Bohemia was in fact another neighbour of White Serbia
  6. ^ a b Andreas Nikolaou Stratos (1968). Byzantium in the seventh century. Adolf M. Hakkert. p. 326. These, he says, descended from the unbaptised Serbs who were also called "white" and lived in a place called by them "Boiki" (Bohemia)...
  7. ^ Acta archaeologica Carpathica. Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. 1999. p. 163. Wielu spośród nich osiedlili królowie węgierscy u zachodnich granic swego królestwa; morze Ciemne = Bałtyk; Boiki = Bohemia, czyli Czechy...
  8. ^ Slavia antiqua. 44. Poznań Society of Friends of Learning. 2003. p. 13. Serbów balkañskich znajdowala siç w kraju zwanym u nich Boiki (Bohemia=Czechy)...
  9. ^ Howorth, H. H. (1878). "The Spread of the Slaves. Part I. The Croats" (PDF). The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 7: 326. doi:10.2307/2841009. JSTOR 2841009.
  10. ^ Howorth, H. H. (7 December 1880). "The Spread of the Slaves. Part III. The Northern Serbs or Sorabians and the Obodriti". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 9: 181–232. doi:10.2307/2841974. JSTOR 2841974.
  11. ^ Béni Kállay (1882). Istorija srpskoga naroda. Petar Curčić. p. 14.
  12. ^ Ćorović 2001, ch. Словени насељавају Балкан.
  13. ^ Ljubivoje Cerović (2002). Srbi u Ukrajini. Muzej Vojvodine. p. 13.
  14. ^ Borivoje M. Drobnjaković (1960). Etnologija naroda Jugoslavije. 1 (1960). Naučna knjiga. p. 102.
  15. ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 17.
  16. ^ Vizantološki institut (1996). Recueil de travaux de l'Institut des études byzantines. 35. Vizantološki institut SANU. p. 127. Најпре је посвећивана пажња подацима о прадомовини Срба, односно о Белој или некрштеној Србији о чијем положају на широком простору иза Мађарске а између Лабе и Пољске су и раније у стручној литератури изрицани различити судови. Много пажње овом питању посветио је Р. Нова- ковић, полазећи од унапред стеченог убеђења да сам Константин Порфирогенит тврди да су Срби са северозапада стигли на Балканско полуострво.37 Извесно је да се тако нешто не може наслутити из података цара писца, јер би иначе била сасвим сувишна и не- разумљива дуга расправљања о положају прадомовине Срба па и Хрвата. У трагању за локализацијом прадомовине Срба, односно Беле Србије, Р. Новаковић се уствари вратио на већ одавно искази- вано мишљење да се она налазила у Полабљу. Настојећи да у подацима цара писца открије елементе који би упућивали на западну локализацију Беле Србије, он је пре свега обратио пажњу на детаљ да се она налазила близу Франачке.38 Међутим, Р. Новаковић је желео да изнесе још неке доказе за западну локализацију Беле Србије, на пр. име Бојки којим су Бели Срби, бар по цару писцу, називали своју земљу. По његовом уверењу тај назив, који долази од имена келтског племена Боји, односи се на Чешку (Војоћетшп), што је довољан доказ да прадомовину Срба ваља тражити на севе- розападу простора иза Турске (Угарске) где је смешта спис ВА1.59 Знатну пажњу Р. Новаковић је посветио занимљивом податку цара писца да су Бели Срби од давнина били настањени у својој пра- домовини, а пошто се она по његовом убеђењу налазила у Полабљу, то значи да су Словени овде живели сигурно пре V или чак пре IV века после Христа.40 Касније је Р. Новаковић посебну пажњу после доласка Срба на Балканско полуострво, што показује да су они овде пристигли негде крајем VIII века.
  17. ^ Jaroslav Rudnyckyj (1962–1972). An Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language: Parts 1–11, A–G (in English and Ukrainian). 1. Winnipeg: Ukrainian Free Academy of Sciences (UVAN). p. 162.
  18. ^ Sedov 2013, p. 458.
  19. ^ a b c Sedov 2013, p. 459.
  20. ^ Živković 2012, p. 185.

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Sakač, Simeon (1994). Бојки — прапостојбина Срба на Карпатима. Рад музеја Војводине (in Serbian). 36: 145–149.
  • Novaković, Relja (1977). Odakle su Srbi došli na Balkansko poluostrvo (in Serbian). Istorijski institut.
  • Županić, Niko (1922). "Bela Srbija". Narodna Starina (in Croatian). Zagreb. 2: 107–118.