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Western Digital

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Western Digital Corporation (abbreviated WDC, commonly known as Western Digital and abbreviated WD) is an American computer hard disk drive manufacturer and data storage company. It designs, manufactures and sells data technology products, including storage devices, data center systems and cloud storage services.

Western Digital Corporation
Public
Traded asNASDAQWDC
NASDAQ-100 Component
S&P 500 Component
IndustryData technology
FoundedApril 23, 1970; 48 years ago (1970-04-23)
Headquarters,
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Stephen D. Milligan (CEO)
ProductsHard disk drives
NAND Flash-based storage devices
Storage systems
BrandsWD
SanDisk
G-Technology
RevenueIncrease US$19.093 billion (2017)[1]
Increase US$1.954 billion (2017)[1]
Increase US$397 million (2017)[1]
Total assetsDecrease US$29.860 billion (2017)[1]
Total equityIncrease US$11.418 billion (2017)[1]
Number of employees
72,000 (2018)[2]
Websitewww.westerndigital.com Edit this on Wikidata

Western Digital Corporation has a long history in the electronics industry as an integrated circuit maker and a storage products company. It is also one of the larger computer hard disk drive manufacturers, along with its primary competitor Seagate Technology.[3]

Contents

HistoryEdit

1970sEdit

Western Digital was founded on April 23, 1970, by Alvin B. Phillips, a Motorola employee, as General Digital, initially (and briefly) a manufacturer of MOS test equipment. It rapidly became a speciality semiconductor maker, with start-up capital provided by several individual investors and industrial giant Emerson Electric. Around July 1971, it adopted its current name and soon introduced its first product, the WD1402A UART.

The company was financed by Emerson Electric Company and investors, to sell calculator chips through the early years of the 1970s, and by 1975, Western Digital was the largest independent calculator chip maker in the world. The oil crisis of the mid-1970s and the bankruptcy of its biggest calculator customer, Bowmar Instrument,[4] changed its fortunes, however, and in 1976 Western Digital declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy. After this, Emerson Electric withdrew their support of the company.

Western Digital introduced several products during the late 1970s, including the MCP-1600 multi-chip, microcoded CPU. The MCP-1600 was used to implement DEC's LSI-11 system and their own Pascal MicroEngine microcomputer which ran the UCSD p-System Version III and UCSD Pascal. The processor was also used in several single-chip floppy disk drive controller chips, notably the FD1771.[5] However, the WD integrated circuit that arguably drove Western's forward integration was the 1771 chip, the first disk drive formatter/controller, replacing boards of TTL logic.

1980sEdit

The FD1771 and its kin were Western Digital's first entry into the data storage industry; by the early 1980s, they were making hard disk drive controllers, and in 1983, they won the contract to provide IBM with controllers for the PC/AT. That controller, the WD1003, became the basis of the ATA interface (which Western Digital developed along with Compaq and Control Data Corporation's MPI division, now owned by Seagate Technology), starting in 1986. Throughout most of the 1980s, the family of controllers based on the WD1003 provided the bulk of Western Digital's revenues and profits, and for a time generated enormous corporate growth.

 
Western Digital Paradise VGA card, 8-bit ISA bus, circa 1989

Much of the mid-to-late 1980s saw an effort by Western Digital to use the profits from their ATA storage controllers to become a general-purpose OEM hardware supplier for the PC industry. As a result, Western Digital purchased a number of hardware companies. These included graphics cards (through its Paradise subsidiary, purchased 1986, which became Western Digital Imaging), core logic chipsets (by purchasing Faraday Electronics Inc. in 1987), SCSI controller chips for disk and tape devices (by purchasing ADSI in 1986), networking (WD8003, WD8013 Ethernet and WD8003S StarLAN). They did well (especially Paradise, which produced one of the best VGA cards of the era), but storage-related chips and disk controllers were their biggest money makers. In 1986, they introduced the WD33C93 single-chip SCSI interface, which was used in the first 16-bit bus mastering SCSI host adapter, the WD7000 "FASST"; in 1987 they introduced the WD37C65, a single-chip implementation of the PC/AT's floppy disk controller circuitry, and the grandfather of modern super I/O chips; in 1988 they introduced the WD42C22 "Vanilla", the first single-chip ATA hard disk controller.

1988 also brought what would be the biggest change in Western Digital's history. That year, Western Digital bought the hard drive production assets of PC hardware maker Tandon; the first products of that union under Western Digital's own name were the "Centaur" series of ATA and XT attachment drives.[citation needed]

1990sEdit

 
Western Digital Tidbit 60 (WDAH260) - 62.3 MB (2.5 inch drive mounted in 3.5 inch adapter bracket)
 
Western Digital Caviar 80 MB (model number WDAC280-32), from a series of HDDs for desktop PCs; it is a 3.5-inch HDD mounted onto a 5.25-inch adapter bracket.

By 1991, things were starting to slow down, as the PC industry moved from ST-506 and ESDI drives to ATA and SCSI, and thus were buying fewer hard disk controller boards. That year saw the rise of Western Digital's Caviar drives, brand new designs that used the latest in embedded servo and computerized diagnostic systems.

Eventually, the successful sales of the Caviar drives resulted in Western Digital starting to sell some of its divisions. Paradise was sold to Philips, and since disappeared. Its networking and floppy drive controller divisions went to SMC Networks and its SCSI chip business went to Future Domain, which was later bought out by market leader Adaptec. Around 1995, the technological lead that the Caviar drives had enjoyed was eclipsed by newer offerings from other companies, especially Quantum Corp., and Western Digital fell into a slump.

Products and ideas of this time did not go far. The Portfolio drive (a 3-inch (76 mm) form factor model, developed with JT Storage) was a flop, as was the SDX hard disk to CD-ROM interface. Western Digital's drives started to slip further behind competing products, and quality began to suffer; system builders and PC enthusiasts who used to recommend Western Digital above all else, were going to the competition, particularly Maxtor, whose products had improved significantly by the late 1990s.

In an attempt to turn the tide in 1998, Western Digital recruited the help of IBM. This agreement gave Western Digital the rights to use certain IBM technologies, including giant magneto-resistive (GMR) heads and access to IBM production facilities. The result was the Expert line of drives, introduced in early 1999. The idea worked, and Western Digital regained respect in the press and among users, even despite a recall in 2000 (which was due to bad motor driver chips). Western Digital later broke ties to IBM.

2000sEdit

 
Western Digital WD740GD 74 GB Raptor, a 10,000 rpm 3.5-inch HDD

In 2001, Western Digital became the first manufacturer to offer mainstream ATA hard disk drives with 8 MiB of disk buffer. At that time, most desktop hard disk drives had 2 MB of buffer. Western Digital labeled these 8 MB models as "Special Edition" and distinguished them with the JB code (the 2 MB models had the BB code). The first 8 MB cache drive was the 100 GB WD1000JB, followed by other models starting with 40 GB capacity. Western Digital advertised the JB models for cost-effective file servers. In October 2001, Western Digital restated its prior year results to reflect the adoption of SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No.101 and the reclassification of Connex and SANavigator results as discontinued operations.[6]

In 2003, Western Digital acquired most of the assets of bankrupt one-time market leading magnetic hard drive read-write head developer Read-Rite Corporation. In the same year, Western Digital offered the first 10,000 rpm Serial ATA HDD, the WD360GD "Raptor", with a capacity of 36 GB and an average access time of less than six milliseconds. Soon, the 74 GB WD740GD followed, which was also much quieter. In 2004, Western Digital redesigned its logo for the first time since 1997, with the design of new logo focusing on the company's initials ("WD").[7] In 2005, Western Digital released the 150 GB version, the WD1500, which was also available in a special version with a transparent window enabling the user to see the drive's heads move over the platters while the drive read and wrote data. As of 2004, the Western Digital Raptor drives have a five-year warranty, making them a more attractive choice for inexpensive storage servers, where a large number of drives in constant use increases the likelihood of a drive failure.

In 2006, Western Digital introduced its My Book line of mass market external hard drives that feature a compact book-like design. On October 7, 2007, Western Digital released several editions of a single 1 TB hard drive, the largest in its My Book line.

In 2007, Western Digital acquired magnetic media maker Komag. Also in the same year, Western Digital adopted perpendicular recording technology in its line of notebook and desktop drives. This allowed it to produce notebook and desktop drives in the largest classes of the time. Western Digital also started to produce the energy efficient GP (Green Power) range of drives.

In 2007, Western Digital announced the WD GP drive touting rotational speed "between 7200 and 5400 rpm", which is technically correct while also being misleading; the drive spins at 5405 rpm, and the Green Power spin speed is not variable.[8] WD GP drives are programmed to unload the heads whenever idle for a very short period of time.[9] Many Linux installations write to the file system a few times a minute in the background.[10] As a result, there may be 100 or more load cycles per hour, and the 300,000 load cycles rating of a WD GP drive may be exceeded in less than a year.[11]

 
Two third-generation 1 TB VelociRaptors in IcePack mounting frames

On April 21, 2008, Western Digital announced the next generation of its 10,000 rpm SATA WD Raptor series of hard drives. The new drives, called WD VelociRaptor, featured 300 GB capacity and 2.5-inch (64 mm) platters enclosed in the IcePack, a 3.5-inch (89 mm) mounting frame with a built-in heat sink. Western Digital said that the new drives are 35 percent faster than the previous generation. On September 12, 2008, Western Digital shipped a 500 GB 2.5-inch (64 mm) notebook hard drive which is part of their Scorpio Blue series of notebook hard drives.

On January 27, 2009, Western Digital shipped the first 2 TB internal hard disk drive.[12] On March 30, 2009, they entered the solid-state drive market with the acquisition of Siliconsystems, Inc. On July 27, 2009, Western Digital announced the first 1 TB mobile hard disk drive, which shipped as both a Passport series portable USB drive as well as a Scorpio Blue series notebook drive.[13]

In October 2009, Western Digital announced the shipment of first 3 TB internal hard disk drive, which has 750 GB-per-platter density with SATA interface.[14]

2010sEdit

In March 2011, Western Digital agreed to acquire the storage unit of Hitachi, HGST, for about $4.3 billion of which $3.5 billion was paid in cash and the rest with 25 million shares of Western Digital.[15]

 
Western Digital "Red" 4 TB, a NAS-optimized 3.5-inch SATA HDD

In March 2012, Western Digital completed the acquisition of HGST and became the largest traditional hard drive manufacturer in the world; to address the requirements of regulatory agencies, in May 2012 Western Digital divested assets to manufacture and sell certain 3.5-inch hard drives for the desktop and consumer electronics markets to Toshiba.[16]

In February 2014, Western Digital announced a new "Purple" line of hard disk drives for use in video surveillance systems, with capacities from 1 to 4 TB. They feature internal optimizations for applications that involve near-constant disk writing, and "AllFrame" technology which is designed to reduce write errors.[17]

 
A red redesigned My Passport Ultra Drive with a storage of 2TB

In April 2017, Western Digital moved its headquarters from Irvine, California to San Jose, California.[18] In December 2017 Western Digital reached an agreement with Toshiba about the sale of the jointly owned NAND production facility in Japan.[19] In May 2018 Toshiba reached an agreement with the Bain consortium about the sale of that chip unit.[20]

In May 2016, Western Digital acquired SanDisk for US$19 billion.[21][22] In the summer of 2017, Western Digital licensed the Fusion-io/SanDisk ION Accelerator software to One Stop Systems.[23] In August 2017, Western Digital acquired Upthere, which offers apps that sync files and photos across devices, with the intention to continue building out the service.[24] In September 2017, Western Digital acquired Tegile Systems, maker of flash memory storage arrays.[25]

In July 2018, Western Digital announced their plan to close their hard disk production facility in Kuala Lumpur.[26] The company ranked 158th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue.[27]

ProductsEdit

Hard drivesEdit

Self-encrypting Western Digital hard drives have been reported to have severe faults and to be easy to decrypt.[28]

Western Digital was the last manufacturer of parallel ATA hard disk drives for laptops (2.5-inch form factor) and desktop PCs (3.5-inch form factor), producing them until December 2013.[29] Furthermore, they were the only manufacturer that have 250 GB and 320 GB in 2.5-inch form factor.

Western Digital sells data center software and system solutions.[30] Including an enterprise-class Ultrastar product line.[31] In October 2017, Western Digital shipped the world’s first 14 TB HDD, the helium-filled HGST Ultrastar Hs14.[32][33]

Consumer productsEdit

Western Digital sells consumer storage products under the WD brand, with product families called My Passport, My Book, WD TV, and My Cloud. While traditionally these products have used HDDs, Western Digital has started to offer SSD versions, such as the My Passport SSD, its first portable SSD.[34] In September 2015, Western Digital released My Cloud OS 3, a platform that enables connected HDDs to sync between PCs and mobile devices.[35][36]

Western Digital also sells consumer data technology products under the SanDisk, and G-Technology product brands, as well as cloud storage services under the Upthere brand. Through Western Digital’s acquisition of Upthere, the company offers personal cloud storage through the Upthere Home app and UpOS operating system.[37][38]

Under the SanDisk brand, Western Digital offers mobile storage products, cards and readers, USB flash drives, SSDs and MP3 players. Most of Western Digital’s consumer flash memory products are offered through SanDisk. The SanDisk iXpand product family, including the iXpand Flash Drive and iXpand Base, is made specifically for use with the Apple iPhone and iPad.[39][40][41] The 400GB SanDisk Ultra microSDXC UHS-I card was designed primarily for use in Android smartphones that include an expansion slot.[42][43]

Under the G-Technology brand, Western Digital offers HDD, SSD, platforms and systems products designed specifically for creative professionals.[44][45][46]

Corporate affairsEdit

Western Digital Capital is Western Digital's investment arm.[47][48] It has contributed funding for data technology companies such as Elastifile and Avere Systems.[49][50][51]

LawsuitsEdit

Lawsuits have been filed against various manufacturers including Western Digital,[52] related to the claimed capacity of their drives. The drives are labelled using the convention of 103 (1,000) bytes to the kilobyte, resulting in a perceived capacity shortfall when reported by most operating systems, which tend to use 210 (1,024) bytes to the kilobyte.[53]

While Western Digital maintained that they used "the indisputably correct industry standard for measuring and describing storage capacity", and that they "cannot be expected to reform the software industry", they agreed to settle in March 2006,[54] with a $30 refund to affected customers in the form of backup and recovery software of the same value.[53]

AcquisitionsEdit

Acquisition date Company Product types Price Refs
March 8, 2012 HGST HDD, SSD $3,900,000,000 [55]
September 12, 2013 STEC SSD $340,000,000 [56][57]
October 17, 2013 Virident SSD, system and software $685,000,000 [58][59]
March 16, 2015 Amplidata Software  — [60]
May 12, 2016 SanDisk SSD, system and software, NAND flash, embedded $19,000,000,000 [61]
August 28, 2017 Upthere Flash, persistent, cloud services  — [62]
September 2017 Tegile Flash, persistent, cloud services  — [63][64]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "Western Digital Technologies 2017 Annual Report (Form 10-K)". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. July 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Quarterly Fact Sheet — Q3 FY18" (PDF). Western Digital. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  3. ^ Disk Drive Industry Update: Volume 76, Needham Company, June 14, 2011
  4. ^ Smith, William D. (February 11, 1975). "Bowmar Will Ask Reorganization". The New York Times. p. 55.
  5. ^ Michalopoulos, Demetrios A (October 1976). "New Products: Single-chip floppy disk formatter/controller". Computer. 9 (10): 64. doi:10.1109/C-M.1976.218414."The FD1771 is a single-chip floppy disk formatter/controller that interfaces with most available disk drives and virtually all types of computers."
  6. ^ "Western Digital Reports $4 Million Profit in HDD Business on Revenue of $441 Million, Unit Shipments of 5.4 Million". October 25, 2001. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  7. ^ "Western Digital Launches New Logo with Universal Appeal". October 6, 2004. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  8. ^ "WD Green Mobile Series Spec Sheet" (PDF). WDC. June 26, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  9. ^ "hdparm(8) - Linux manual page". man7.org. November 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2014. Get/set the Western Digital (WD) Green Drive's "idle3" timeout value. This timeout controls how often the drive parks its heads and enters a low power consumption state. The factory default is eight (8) seconds, which is a very poor choice for use with Linux. Leaving it at the default will result in hundreds of thousands of head load/unload cycles in a very short period of time.
  10. ^ "discussion list". Arch Linux. If linux tends to write to /var/log/* every 30s, then the heads can park/unpark every 30s.
  11. ^ WD Green Spec Sheet (PDF), WD
  12. ^ "Western Digital launches 2TB hard drive". ZDNet. January 27, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2009.
  13. ^ "WD ships industry's first 1 TB mobile hard drive". WDC. July 27, 2009. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  14. ^ "WD's New 3TB Drive Packs More Storage Than 32-Bit Can Handle". WIRED. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
  15. ^ Hitachi Rises on $4.3 Billion Sale of Hard-Drive Unit to Western Digital. Bloomberg. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  16. ^ Ngo, Dong (28 February 2012). "Toshiba to acquire Western Digital's 3.5-inch HDD manufacturing equipment". CNET. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  17. ^ "WD says its new Purple hard drives are optimized for 24/7 video surveillance". PC World. IDG. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  18. ^ "Amid job cuts, Western Digital moves HQ to San Jose". Silicon Valley Business Journal. American City Business Journals. April 25, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  19. ^ King, Ian (December 12, 2017). "Toshiba, Western Digital Settle Fight Over Chip Unit Sale". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  20. ^ "Toshiba completes $18 billion sale of chip unit to Bain consortium". Reuters. May 31, 2018. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  21. ^ "Western Digital to acquire SanDisk for $19B". USA Today. Gannett Company. October 21, 2015. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  22. ^ "Western Digital officially closes SanDisk acquisition". The Verge. Vox Media. May 12, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  23. ^ Tom Matson (August 8, 2017). "Building a True Data Solution". InsideHPC. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  24. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (28 August 2017). "Western Digital buys Upthere to build better cloud storage features". The Verge.
  25. ^ Gagliordi, Natalie (August 29, 2017). "Western Digital buys flash storage company Tegile Systems". ZDNet. Retrieved 17 November 2017. Western Digital just announced that it plans to buy flash storage vendor Tegile Systems. [...] The Tegile acquisition is expected to close next week.
  26. ^ Mellor, Chris (July 17, 2018). "Western Digital formats hard disk drive factory as demand spins down". The Register. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  27. ^ "Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-11-21.
  28. ^ "Some Popular 'Self Encrypting' Hard Drives Have Really Bad Encryption". Motherboard. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  29. ^ "Western Digital to Stop Shipping PATA Hard Drives". TechPowerUp. Retrieved December 22, 2014.
  30. ^ Dignan, Larry (15 November 2016). "Western Digital's data center unit adds to scale-out storage portfolio". ZDNet. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  31. ^ Wong, Wylie (12 October 2017). "Western Digital Aims Largest Hard Drive Ever at World's Largest Data Centers". Data Center Knowledge. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  32. ^ Lilly, Paul (3 October 2017). "Western Digital's mega-capacity 14TB helium-filled hard drive is now shipping". PC Gamer. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  33. ^ Whitwam, Ryan (4 October 2017). "Western Digital Launches World's First 14TB Hard Drive". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  34. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (6 April 2017). "Western Digital announces its first portable SSD". The Verge. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  35. ^ Armstrong, Adam (7 July 2017). "WD Red 10TB Review". Storage Review. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  36. ^ Smith, Lyle (18 August 2017). "WD My Passport Ultra Review (4TB)". Storage Review. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  37. ^ Miller, Matthew (29 July 2016). "Upthere launches cloud service with a goal to replace your local storage". ZDNet. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  38. ^ Spadafora, Anthony (31 August 2017). "Western Digital buys cloud storage company Upthere". BetaNews. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  39. ^ Heater, Brian (25 April 2016). "Hands on with SanDisk's iPhone storage-expanding flash drive". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  40. ^ Fuller, Leanne (11 July 2017). "Sandisk iXpand flash drive fits iPhone lightning charge port". WPSD Local 6. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  41. ^ Smith, Lyle (31 August 2017). "WD Announces SanDisk iXpand Base For iPhone & 400GB microSD Card". Storage Review. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  42. ^ Mellor, Chris (31 August 2017). "SanDisk's little microSD card sucks up 400GB". The Register. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  43. ^ Etherington, Darrell (31 August 2017). "SanDisk's 400GB microSD card is an Android phone's best friend". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  44. ^ Broussard, Mitchel (11 April 2017). "Western Digital Reveals 'G-Drive USB-C' With High-Capacity Storage and MacBook Charging Capabilities". MacRumors. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  45. ^ Ottke, Adam (8 September 2015). "G-Technology's New Enclosures and Adapters Offer Increased Flexibility and Support for All Creative Workflows". Fstoppers. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  46. ^ Broussard, Mitchel (11 April 2017). "Western Digital Reveals 'G-Drive USB-C' With High-Capacity Storage and MacBook Charging Capabilities". MacRumors. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  47. ^ "Company Overview of Western Digital Capita". Bloomberg. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  48. ^ McGrath, Dylan (30 August 2017). "Western Digital Buys Flash Array Vendor Tegile". EE Times. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  49. ^ Mellor, Chris (6 September 2017). "File software-flinger Elastifile stretches funding further to $65m". The Register. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  50. ^ Sawers, Paul (21 March 2017). "Hybrid cloud storage company Avere Systems raises $14 million from Google, Western Digital, others". VentureBeat. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  51. ^ Clarke, Peter (11 September 2017). "Western Digital backs processor-in-memory startup". eeNews Analog. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  52. ^ Western Digital Settles Capacity Suit, betanews.com
  53. ^ a b Western Digital settles drive size lawsuit, arstechnica.com
  54. ^ NOTICE OF CLASS ACTION AND PROPOSED SETTLEMENT (“NOTICE”) Archived May 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., wdc.com
  55. ^ Ribeiro, John (8 March 2012). "Western Digital Closes Hitachi GST Acquisition, to Operate Separate Subsidiaries". PCWorld. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  56. ^ Vättö, Kristian (24 June 2013). "Western Digital Acquires STEC". AnandTech. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  57. ^ Doulatramani, Chandni (24 June 2013). "Western Digital buys Stec to build solid-state business". Reuters. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  58. ^ Alawadhi, Neha (9 September 2013). "Western Digital buys flash memory maker Virident, focus now on Fusion-io". Reuters. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  59. ^ Dignan, Larry (9 September 2013). "Western Digital buys Virident Systems for $685 million, bolsters enterprise efforts". ZDNet. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  60. ^ Harris, Robin (3 March 2015). "WD's HGST buys Amplidata". ZDNet. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  61. ^ https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2015/10/21/western-digital-acquires-sandisk-19b/74318512/
  62. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (28 August 2017). "Western Digital buys Upthere to build better cloud storage features". The Verge. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  63. ^ "Western Digital buys up Tegile Systems to add to its Data Center Systems business". V3. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  64. ^ Mellor, Chris (July 27, 2018). "If you were a firm-swallowing storage giant, how WD you digest them all?". The Register. Retrieved August 15, 2018.

External linksEdit